1. Cinchona. Cinchona.
2. Cinchona Rubra. Red Cinchona.
Ledgeriana, + hybrids, Moens, Calisaya, + hybrids, Weddell, succirubra, + hybrids, Pavon, and other species.
The dried bark, containing 5 p. c. of alkaloids.
Habitat. S. America; cultivated in Java, India, Ceylon, E. Africa, Straits Settlements; unsuccessfully in Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Fijis, etc.
Syn. Jesuit Bark (Powder), Countess' Powder; 1. Cinch., Yellow Cinchona, Calisaya Bark, Yellow Peruvian Bark, Cinchona Flava, Cinchonse Flavae Cortex;
Fr. Quinquina (Calisaya) jaune; Ger. China Regia, Kalisayarinde, Konigschina. 2. Cinch. Rub., Red Peruvian Bark, Red Bark, Saint Ann's Bark; Br. Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex; Fr. Quinquina rouge; Ger. Cortex Chinae, Chinarinde, Rothe Chinarinde.
Cin-cho'na, better Chinchona, after Countess Ana de Osorio, wife of fourth Count of Chinchon, Spanish Viceroy of Peru (Chinchon, a town in Spain, near Madrid). She was cured of tertian fever by this bark, 1638, through the recommendation of a Jesuit, brought it to Europe, 1640, extolled its virtues, and thus published the hitherto Jesuit secret.
Ledg-er-i-a'na. L. Ledgerian, of or belonging to Ledger - i. e., after C. Ledger, who obtained the seed, 1865, from the Caupolican province, Bolivia.
Cal-i-sa'ya. Name given the bark by Spaniards and Indians.
Suc-ci-ru'bra. L. succus, juice, + ruber, red - i. e., sap first colorless, then white, and red on exposure.
Quina (Gheena), Peruv. Indian name for bark; quina-quina - medicinal bark; this name they apply also to other barks, and from it comes Fr. Quinquina rouge; Ger. China, very similar to Sp. cascarilla, dim. of cascara.
Piants. - Evergreen trees, 6-24 M. (20-80°) high, .1-.6 M. (4-24') thick; leaves opposite, entire, caducous, bright green, shining, glabrous above, paler, pubescent beneath (best scrobiculate, except C. succiru-bra), lamina 7.5-20 Cm. (3-8') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') broad, ovate, midrib prominent often purplish, petiole pubescent, reddish; flowers tubular, pinkish, fragrant, 15 Mm. (3/5') long, 5-divided; fruit dehiscent capsule, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') long, ovate, smooth, 2-celled, seeds winged, numerous. Bark (C. Ledgeriana, + C. Calisaya), in quills, .3-1 M. (1-3°) long, 1-5 Cm. (2/5-2') broad, curved pieces and broken fragments of variable size, 3-7 Mm. (1/8-1/4') thick, gray, rarely brownish-gray, numerous intersecting transverse and longitudinal fissures with nearly vertical sides, usually patches of foliaceous lichens with small brownish-black apothecia; cinnamon-brown when outer bark absent; inner surface cinnamon-brown, finely striate; fracture short and granular (outer), finely splintery (inner); bast-fibres mostly singly, few in 2's-3's; medullary rays narrow, laticiferous ducts visible only in young (inferior) bark; distinguished (mature bark, 6-9 years old) by profuse reticulations of fine intersecting fissures with vertical sides and absence of strong ridges, "chicken-leg appearance" - not in young bark, which often is rich in alkaloids; demand increasing owing to richness in quinine - 75 p. c. of total alkaloids; (C. succirubra), in quills, curved pieces and broken fragments of variable size, 2-7 Mm. (1/12-1/4') thick, gray, brownish-gray, reddish-brown, rough from corky protuberances, occasionally transverse fissures, rarely numerous or much intersected, but with sloping sides, occasional patches of foliaceous lichens; inner surface reddish, orange-brown, distinctly striate; fracture short and granular (outer), shortly and rather coarsely splintery (inner); distinguished (mature bark, 6-9 years old) by strong longitudinal ridges and fissures rarely intersecting, bast-fibres mostly in 2's-5's, often more, a row of laticiferous ducts in outer bark; odor faintly aromatic; taste very bitter, astringent. Powder, reddish-brown, light brown; microscopically - bast-fibres fusiform, yellowish, lignified, few starch grains, .003-015 Mm. (1/8325-1/1650') broad, many sphenoidal micro-crystals of calcium oxalate. Test: 1. Heat 1 Gm. in dry test-tube - tarry distillate purplish, granular (C. Ledgeriana, + C. Calisaya, or bright red (C. succirubra); demand decreasing owing to weakness in quinine - 20 - 40 p. c., in spite of high yield of cinchonidine, along with some cinclionine and quinidine. Solvents: alcohol (75 p. c); acidified water. Dose, gr. 15-00 (1-4 Gm.).
Fig. 377. - Cinchona succirubra.
Adulterations. - Inferior grades through ignorance, substituting one variety for another intentionally, Maracaibo for the yellow; barks treated with ammonia gas (thereby producing cinchona-red) for red bark; powder with residual inferior barks.
Commercial. - Plants natively hug mountain sides; in S. America from 10° north latitude to 20° south latitude, on the eastern slopes of central Andes chain (Bolivia to Peru, Ecuador) and western Cordilleras chain, thence to the highlands of Colombia, Venezuela, Caracas, and
Caribbean Sea. Of the 3G species recognized, the 3 official with their hybrids are considered the richest alkaloid producers, that upon which value depends. Formerly the slight variation in color of the bark and specific district sufficed to impress trade importance, but this now turns solely upon assay, making the following classification largely of historic interest: 1, Yellow (C. Ledgeriana, C. Calisaya); 2, Red (C. succirubra); 3, Pale (Crown, Loxa - C. officinalis, var. (a) Con-damin'ea, (6) Bonplan'da, (c) cris'pa; 4, Gray (C. nit'ida, C. micrantha, C. peruviana); 5, Colombian (C. pitayensis, C. lancifo'lia, C. cordifolia). The best species flourish where mean annual temperature is 13° C. (55° F.) and rainy season continues 9 months, rainfall being heavy at