1. Cinnamomum Saigonicum. Saigon Cinnamon.

2. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Ceylon Cinnamon.

Cinnamomum

1. species undetermined,

2. zeylanicum, Breyne.

1. The dried bark. 2. The dried bark of cultivated trees, with not more than 3 p. c. of the outer bark, foreign matter.

Habitat. 1. Annam (Cochin China). 2. Ceylon; cultivated in China, Java, Sumatra, South America, W. Indies.

Syn. 1. Cinnam. Saigon., Annam - China - God's Cinnamon, Annam Cassia, Cortex Cinnamomi Saigonici; Fr. Cannelle de Saigon; Ger. Saigonzimt. 2. Cinnam. Zeylan., Cinnamomum (U. S. P. 1880); Br. Cinnamomi Cortex, True Ceylon Cinnamon, True or Suet Cinnamon, Cinnamomum (acutum) verum; Fr. Cannelle de Ceylon; Ger. Ceylonzimt, Brauner Canel.

Cin-na-mo'mum. L. fr. Ar. kinnamon, cinnamon, probably connected with qaneh, a reed, cane - i. e., resemblance of stems; or Malay kaju manis, sweet wood, from its aromatic odor and taste.

Sa-i-gon'i-cum. L. belonging to Saigon, a country and city in Southern Annam - i. e., its native habitat.

Ze-y-lan'i-cum. L. belonging to Ceylon - i. e., its habitat.

Plants. - Handsome evergreen trees, 6-9 M. (20-30°) high, trunk .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, young twigs slightly quadrangular; leaves coriaceous, 3-5-nerved, but only midrib reaches apex, bright glossy-green above, glaucous beneath, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers Jan.-March, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous, fleshy, black, ovoid, size of small olive, adhering, like acorn, to cup-shaped perianth. Bark (C. Laureirii, + - ?): Saigon, in quills, 30 Cm. (12') long, 3-30 Mm. (1/8-1 1/5') broad; bark .5-3 Mm. (1/50-1/8') thick, light brown, dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens and numerous bud-scars, finely wrinkled, especially that of younger twigs, otherwise rough from corky patches surrounding the len-ticels; inner surface reddish-brown, granular, slightly striate; fracture short - inner bark porous from large oil and mucilage cells, and separated from the outer by a layer of stone cells; odor aromatic; taste sweetish, aromatic, pungent; (C. zeylanicum): Ceylon, in closely rolled double quills of 7-12 thin layers of separate pieces of bark, 30-50 Cm. (12-20') long, 8-13 Mm. (1/3 - 1/2') broad, bark 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, pale yellowish-brown, smooth, longitudinally striate with narrow groups of bast-fibres and brownish patches, occasional perforations marking the nodes; inner surface light brown, with faint longitudinal striations; fracture short with projecting bast-fibres; odor agreeably aromatic; taste

Fig. 140.   Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

Fig. 140. - Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

sweetish, warmly aromatic; when distilled yields .5-1 p. c. of volatile oil (less than preceding - .5-1.5 p. c), the most delicate of all, and only approximated by the finer grades of other varieties. Powder, yellowish-brown; microscopically - numerous starch grains, .003-.02 Mm. (1/8325-1/1250')) broad, colorless stone cells, numerous cellular reddish-brown fragments, calcium oxalate raphides; Saigon has many cork cells, Ceylon few or none, while bast-fibres of former are in groups of 2-20, of latter single and fusiform; volatile extractive soluble in ether .5 (Ceylon) -2 p. c. (Saigon). Solvents: alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Bark: 1, Cassia bark, and a closely resembling bark of unknown derivation, having lighter gray color and coarser structure identified by weak odor and taste; possibly unscraped Guava bark quills, and clove bark; 2, Scarcely possible in the entire state; Powder: That of either variety not found on the market, all so labeled being cassia, which is subject to endless admixtures - chips, siftings, buds, walnut-shells, oil stone, flour, sand, beans, grains, starch, clove-

Cinnamomum Cinnamon 343

a.

Cinnamomum Cinnamon 344

b.

Fig. 141. - Cinnamomum: a, flower; b, vertical section of the same.

buds - exhausted drug, by percolation, distillation; ash (sometimes) 8-10 p. c; Oil: That distilled from flowers and roots, phenol, oil of clove, petroleum, colophony, lead.