1. Cinnamomum Saigonicum. Saigon Cinnamon.

2. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Ceylon Cinnamon.


1. species undetermined,

2. zeylanicum, Breyne.

1. The dried bark. 2. The dried bark of cultivated trees, with not more than 3 p. c. of the outer bark, foreign matter.

Habitat. 1. Annam (Cochin China). 2. Ceylon; cultivated in China, Java, Sumatra, South America, W. Indies.

Syn. 1. Cinnam. Saigon., Annam - China - God's Cinnamon, Annam Cassia, Cortex Cinnamomi Saigonici; Fr. Cannelle de Saigon; Ger. Saigonzimt. 2. Cinnam. Zeylan., Cinnamomum (U. S. P. 1880); Br. Cinnamomi Cortex, True Ceylon Cinnamon, True or Suet Cinnamon, Cinnamomum (acutum) verum; Fr. Cannelle de Ceylon; Ger. Ceylonzimt, Brauner Canel.

Cin-na-mo'mum. L. fr. Ar. kinnamon, cinnamon, probably connected with qaneh, a reed, cane - i. e., resemblance of stems; or Malay kaju manis, sweet wood, from its aromatic odor and taste.

Sa-i-gon'i-cum. L. belonging to Saigon, a country and city in Southern Annam - i. e., its native habitat.

Ze-y-lan'i-cum. L. belonging to Ceylon - i. e., its habitat.

Plants. - Handsome evergreen trees, 6-9 M. (20-30°) high, trunk .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, young twigs slightly quadrangular; leaves coriaceous, 3-5-nerved, but only midrib reaches apex, bright glossy-green above, glaucous beneath, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers Jan.-March, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous, fleshy, black, ovoid, size of small olive, adhering, like acorn, to cup-shaped perianth. Bark (C. Laureirii, + - ?): Saigon, in quills, 30 Cm. (12') long, 3-30 Mm. (1/8-1 1/5') broad; bark .5-3 Mm. (1/50-1/8') thick, light brown, dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens and numerous bud-scars, finely wrinkled, especially that of younger twigs, otherwise rough from corky patches surrounding the len-ticels; inner surface reddish-brown, granular, slightly striate; fracture short - inner bark porous from large oil and mucilage cells, and separated from the outer by a layer of stone cells; odor aromatic; taste sweetish, aromatic, pungent; (C. zeylanicum): Ceylon, in closely rolled double quills of 7-12 thin layers of separate pieces of bark, 30-50 Cm. (12-20') long, 8-13 Mm. (1/3 - 1/2') broad, bark 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, pale yellowish-brown, smooth, longitudinally striate with narrow groups of bast-fibres and brownish patches, occasional perforations marking the nodes; inner surface light brown, with faint longitudinal striations; fracture short with projecting bast-fibres; odor agreeably aromatic; taste

Fig. 140.   Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

Fig. 140. - Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

sweetish, warmly aromatic; when distilled yields .5-1 p. c. of volatile oil (less than preceding - .5-1.5 p. c), the most delicate of all, and only approximated by the finer grades of other varieties. Powder, yellowish-brown; microscopically - numerous starch grains, .003-.02 Mm. (1/8325-1/1250')) broad, colorless stone cells, numerous cellular reddish-brown fragments, calcium oxalate raphides; Saigon has many cork cells, Ceylon few or none, while bast-fibres of former are in groups of 2-20, of latter single and fusiform; volatile extractive soluble in ether .5 (Ceylon) -2 p. c. (Saigon). Solvents: alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Bark: 1, Cassia bark, and a closely resembling bark of unknown derivation, having lighter gray color and coarser structure identified by weak odor and taste; possibly unscraped Guava bark quills, and clove bark; 2, Scarcely possible in the entire state; Powder: That of either variety not found on the market, all so labeled being cassia, which is subject to endless admixtures - chips, siftings, buds, walnut-shells, oil stone, flour, sand, beans, grains, starch, clove-

Cinnamomum Cinnamon 343


Cinnamomum Cinnamon 344


Fig. 141. - Cinnamomum: a, flower; b, vertical section of the same.

buds - exhausted drug, by percolation, distillation; ash (sometimes) 8-10 p. c; Oil: That distilled from flowers and roots, phenol, oil of clove, petroleum, colophony, lead.