1. Coccus ILI'Cis

Coccus ILI'Cis. Greece (Morea, mountains); inhabits Quercus coccif era; consists of females, size of a pea, brownish-red; used natively as a dye, and called kermes, chermes, or alkermes; with tin salts gives scarlet-red precipitate like the official.

2. Spon'Gia Officinalis, Sponge

Spon'Gia Officinalis, Sponge. Ceratospongiae. The fibrous framework, official 1820-1850. In seas, attached to rocks, sometimes planted. Animal, the lowest order living in water, composed of amoebi-form bodies disposed about a common cavity, with one or more breathing orifices through which water flows in and out. We use the fibrous framework from which the animalcules (gelatinous matter or flesh), gritty and sandy parts have been washed. Sponges are torn from rocks by hands or forks, buried in sand several days to disintegrate animal matter, soaked in water, squeezed, and washed. There are several varieties: 1, Mediterranean, Turkey; 2, Zimocca (coast of Greece); 3, Bathing (N. Africa); 4, Sheep's Wool (Bahama, Florida, Nassau). These are yellowish-brown, but may be bleached by sulphur dioxide, chlorine, sulphurous acid solution, or by dipping them into a 2-3 p. c. solution of potassium permanganate, and washing in a 2-3 p. c. solution of oxalic acid. Sponge contains spongin, also NaCl, CaCO3, Mg, Si, Fe, S, P, Br, I, K, ash 3-4 p. c. Used mechanically for cleansing, washing, absorbing liquids, dilating cavities (sponge tents), supporting parts (pessaries) in dysmenorrhoea, to cause premature labor. When compressed usually coated with wax to prevent absorbing moisture, hence expansion. Spongia Usta, Burnt Sponge; official 1820-1860. Heat sponge in a coffee-roaster until weight is one-fourth less; the residue is mostly charcoal, while 30-35 p. c, the part used, consists of calcium sulphate 25-30 p. c, silica 10 p. c, ferrous oxide 9 p.' c, also magnesium carbonate, potassium chloride, calcium phosphate, and sodium iodide .5-1 p. c. Now superseded by iodine.

3. Sanguisu'ga (Hirudo) medicina'lis, and S. officinalis (quinques-tria'ta), Hirudo, Leeches (Br.). - Annulata. 1, C. and N. Europe (Swedish, German Leech); 2, S. Europe (Hungarian Leech); in freshwater ponds. These animals are 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, smooth, soft, round, flattened, composed of 90-100 rings, disk at each end, in the centre is the mouth, containing 3 jaws, having many teeth; back olive-green with 6 reddish stripes dotted with black, belly greenish, sides black-spotted or with a black line. The first withdraws a quantity of blood equal to its weight, the second more, while a still larger quantity flows after leech falls off. They disgorge the blood when placed in a solution of salt, although such should not be used again within 6 months. Used for local depletion.

Calcareous Related Products:

1. Os'trea Virginia'na and 0. ed'ulis, Testa, Oyster-shell. - Mono-mya. The inner white layer of the shell, official 1830-1880. Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts. Animal has soft, fleshy, suborbicular body, enclosed in a calcareous shell opening by a hinge at one end into 2 valves (bivalved), the deeper one adhering to a rock, etc. Shell is rough, gray outside; inside white, glossy, smooth. For medicine (testa praeparata) they are boiled, outside layer removed and inside one powdered, separating coarse particles by elutriation; contains calcium carbonate 88-98 p. c, calcium phosphate and sulphate, also Mg, Al, Si, Fe2O3. Used as antacid for diarrhoea, chronic bowel affections. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).