Colchicoresin, C51H60N2O15. - Brown, amorphous, soluble in chloroform, alcohol; insoluble in ether, sparingly in cold water.
Beta-colchicoresin, C34H39NO10 - Blackish-brown, soluble in chloroform, strong alcohol; insoluble in water or ether. These last 2 are affected but slightly by tannin, are brownish-green by ferric chloride, and dissolve in potassium hydroxide with a brown color.
Preparations. - I. Corm: 1. Extractum Colchici Cormi. Extract of Colchicum Corm. (Syn., Ext. Colch. Corm., Powdered Extract of Colchicum Corm, Extractum Colchici Radicis, Acetic Extract of Colchicum; Br. Extractum Colchici; Fr. Extrait de Colchique (acetique); Ger. Zeitlosen Essigextrakt.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until exhausted (200 Ml.; Cc.), reclaim alcohol until residue is 15 Ml. (Cc.), rinse still with a little warm alcohol, which add to residue in a flask, cool, shake thoroughly with purified petroleum benzin 25 Ml. (Cc.), again with 15 Ml. (Cc.), again with 10 Ml. (Cc.), discard benzin layers, transfer residue to dish, rinse flask with a little warm alcohol, which add to dish, evaporate to a thick extract, add dried starch 5 Gm., mix thoroughly, spread on glass plates, dry in air-bath at 70° C. (158° F.), pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 1.4 p. c of colchicine; mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 1.25-1.55 - 1.4 p. c .of colchicine; 1 Gm. represents about 4 Gm. of the drug. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).
II. Seeds: 1. Fluidextractum Colchici Seminis. Fluidextract of Colchicum Seed. (Syn., Fldext. Colch. Sem., Fluid Extract of Colchicum Seed; Fr. Extrait fluide de Semence de Colchique; Ger. Zeitlosensamen-fluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Pack, percolate 100 Gm. with purified petroleum benzin until no greasy stain on filter paper, reject benzin solution; dry, air, repack, and proceed similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 67 p. c alcohol; after dissolving soft extract in the reserve, assay and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .30-.44 - .4 Gm. of colchicine. Dose, j-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
2. Tinctura Colchici Seminis. Tincture of Colchicum Seed. (Syn., Tr. Colch. Sem., Tinctura Colchici; Fr. Teinture (de Semences) de Colchique; Ger. Tinctura Colchici; Zeitlosentinktur.)
Manufacture: 10 p. c Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 60 p. c alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .036-.044 - .04 Gm. of colchicine. Dose, x-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)).
Unoff. Preps.: Corm: Fluidextract, dose, ij-8 (.13 - .5 Ml. (Cc.)). Wine, 40 p. c, dose, v-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc.)). Seed: Wine, 10 p. c, dose, x-30 (.0-2 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties. - Alterative, cathartic, emetic, sedative, diuretic, diaphoretic, gastro-intestinal irritant: Small doses increase secretions generally (urine, sweat, etc.); normal doses produce only pains and loose bowels, having little or no effect on nervous system, circulation, respiration, or temperature.
Uses. - Gout, rheumatism, especially if neuralgic, increases urea and uric acid elimination from blood, prurigo, urticaria, other gouty cutaneous troubles. Should be given with an alkali, pushing it just short of nausea, and before beginning with it the bowels should be moved with magnesium sulphate, oxide, or carbonate. Repeated attacks render larger doses necessary, and it may lose entirely its effect. Colchicum was used by the ancients in gout, etc., but falling into disfavor was revived by Storck as a diuretic, expectorant in dropsy, asthma. Again growing into odium, became reestablished by Want, who thought it a component of Eau medicinale d'Husson, a celebrated gout cure.
Poisoning: Have persistent purging, tenesmus, nausea, vomiting, thirst, pain in throat, oesophagus, and stomach, suppressed urine, pinched face, dilated pupils, salivation, cold extremities, weak pulse, prostration, headache, delirium, spasms, stupor, death by gastroenteritis or cardiac paralysis, conscious until the last. Evacuate stomach, if not already done, give tannin, morphine, demulcent drinks, stimulants, heat to extremities, hot abdominal fomentations, castor oil.
Incompatibles: Alcohol, opium (antagonizes cardiac depression), tannin, vegetable infusions. Synergists: Diuretics, purgatives, emetics, alkalies. Allied Plants: