Copal, Gum Copal. A fossil resin of Zanzibar or exuding from many leguminous plants of Africa, S. America, W. Indies. Occurs in yellowish-brown masses, wrinkled surface, conchoidal fracture, glossy, odorless, tasteless; when melted becomes soluble in alcohol, ether, and oil of turpentine. Same medicinal properties as copaiba, only weaker; used mainly in preparing varnishes.
Tamarin'Dus In'Dica, Tamarind. The preserved pulp of the fruit, official 1820-1910; India, Africa, nat. in W. Indies. Handsome tree, 18-24 M. (60-80°) high; bark rough, ash color; leaves paripinnate, leaflets 8-16 pairs, sessile, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-l') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad; flowers yellow, racemes; fruit indehiscent legume, compressed, 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, curved, nearly smooth, yellowish-brown, pericarp thin, brittle, corky, Pulp reddish-brown, darker with age, including branched-fibres and 3-10 reddish-brown, smooth seeds, each enclosed in a tough membrane; odor distinct; taste sweet, agreeably acid. Bright iron in contact with moist pulp 30 minutes should not show reddish deposit (abs. of copper from evaporating vessels). There are three varieties: 1, W. Indian (Brown, Red), the once official kind, cakes kneaded with sugar or hot syrup, or alternate layers of pulp and sugar; 2, E. Indian (Black), masses simply pressed together and dried in the sun; 3, Egyptian, cakes, flat, round, black, acrid, often moldy; contains tartaric acid 5-9 p. c., citric acid 4-6 p. c., potassium bitartrate 5-6 p. c., malic acid, acetic acid (mostly as potassium salts), sugar, pectin, tannin (in seed testa), insoluble matter 12-20 p. c. Laxative, refrigerant; febrile diseases, combined with other laxatives (senna, etc.) as a flavoring. Dose, 3ss-5 (2-20 Gm.).
Haematox'Ylon Campechia'Num, Hematoxylon, Logwood. The heartwood, official 1820-1910; C. America, nat. in W. Indies. Spreading tree, 7.5-12 M. (25-40°) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2°) thick, knotty, tough; bark dark, rough, white dotted; leaves paripinnate, leaflets 4-5 pairs, obcordate, smooth; flowers yellow, racemes, jonquil odor; fruit legume, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') long, compressed, tapering ends, 2-seeded. Heartwood in logs 1 M. (3°) long, 15 Cm. (6') thick, sp. gr. 1.06, hard purplish-black, internally brownish-red, irregular concentric circles, medullary rays 4 cells wide; odor faint, agreeable; taste sweetish, astringent; colors saliva dark pink. In shops as small chips, coarse powder, brownish-red, often with a greenish lustre (fermentation or oxidation of haematoxylin into haematein by ammonia in the air), which pieces should be rejected. Imparts yellowish color to slightly acidified water, changed to purple by alkalies (red with
Fig. 188. - Tamarindus indica.
Fig. 189. - Tamarind fruit: cross-section: ep, epicarp; me, mesocarp; en, endocarp; s, seed.
Brazil wood, no change with red saunders); solvents: boiling water, alcohol. There are four varieties: 1, Campeachy; 2, Honduras; 3, St. Domingo; 4, Jamaica. Contains haematoxylin 12 p. c., volatile oil, tannin, fat, resin. Astringent, tonic, antiseptic, similar to tannin;
Fig. 190. - Haematoxylon campechianum: 1, flower; 2, fruit.
Fig. 191. - Lignum campechianum; cross-section, magnified 4 diam.
cholera infantum, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, hemorrhage, dyspepsia; antiseptic in gangrene, ulcers, cancer; chiefly in dyeing violet, blue, gray, black. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); extract (water), gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).