Koriander (samen). Co-ri-an'drum. L. fr. Gr.
a bug - i. e., from a resemblance in odor of the leaves.
Sa-ti'vum. L. sativus, sown, cultivated - i. e., kind used, in contradistinction to the wild-grown.
Plant. - Annual herb, odor of bed-bugs; stem .3-.6 M. (1-2°) high, solid; leaves bi- or tripinnate; leaflets linear, pointed, lobed, light green, resembling parsley; flowers June, white, rose-colored, umbels small, 4 Cm. (1/3/5') broad, 5-8-rayed. Fruit, cremocarp, sub-globular, yellowish-brown, 3-5 Mm. (1/8-1/5') broad; summit with 5 calyx teeth and a short stylopodium; mericarps 2, usually coherent but easily separated, each with 5 prominent straight primary ribs and 4 indistinct undulate secondary ribs, commissural surface deeply concave with 2 vittae on the inner surface; odor and taste agreeably aromatic. Powder, yellowish-brown; microscopically - fragments of endosperm and pericarp, many calcium oxalate crystals, sclerenchy-uiatous fibres, globules of fixed oil, few fragments of vittae with epidermal cells; volatile extractive, soluble in ether .5 p. c. Solvents: alcohol; water partially. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
Commercial. - Coriander was popular with the ancients; in the fresh state all parts upon being bruised are fetid, the fruit becoming fragrant only upon drying; when ripe plants are cut down with sickles, dried, and fruit thrashed out. Russia produces the bulk of the crop, although we grow mostly our home consumption; that from Bombay (Indian) is larger and ovoid but seldom reaches the United States.
Constituents. - Volatile oil .5-1 p. c, fat 13 p. c, tannin, malic acid, mucilage, ash 7 p. c.
Oleum Coriandri. Oil of Coriander, official. - (Syn., 01. Coriand., Coriander Oil; Fr. Essence de Coriandre; Ger. Korianderol.) This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the ripe fruit crushed between rollers, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of coriander, soluble in 3 vols. of 70 p. c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.870, dextrorotatory; contains a terpine - d-pinene, C10H16, 5 p. c, and an alcohol - linalool (coriandrol), C10H18O, 90 p. c, from which
Fig. 288. - Coriandrum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.
1 molecule of H2O may be withdrawn, leaving C10H16. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
Preparations. - I. Fruit. (Unoff.) Fluidextract, dose, exv-30 (1-2 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, ℥j-2 (30-30 Ml. (Cc,))-II. Oil: 1. Fluidextractum Cascaroe Sagradoe Aromaticum, 1/100 p. c. 2. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, 2 p. c. 3. Syrupus Sennoe, 1/2 p. c.
Properties. - Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, stomachic.