Croton Elute'Ria, Cascarilla. The dried bark, official 1820-1900; Bahama Islands. Plant 1.5-6 M. (5-20°) high, stem, 2.5-20 Cm. (1-80 thick, leaves 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-30 long, ovate, lanceolate, petiolate, under side bronzed-silver, flowers monoecious, white, odorous, fruit 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, ovate, silvery-gray, 3-furrowed, 3-celled; bark in quills or curved pieces, 10 Cm. (40 long, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') broad, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8) thick, silvery-gray from lichen, or brown when this is absent, the exposed surface wrinkled, transversely fissured, inner surface reddish-brown, smooth, fracture short, resinous, thin whitish medullary rays, odor aromatic, musk-like, especially when burned, taste aromatic, bitter; contains volatile oil 1.6 p. c, cascarillin, betaine, resin 15 p. c, tannin, pectin, vanillin. Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge; intermittents, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, poor substitute for cinchona. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); tincture, 20 p. c. (alcohol 70 p. a); dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)); extract, dose, gr. 5-8 (.3-5 Gm.); infusion, 5
Fig. 237. - Cascarilla: bark quill.
Fig. 238. - Cascarilla: 1, cross-section enlarged; 2, cross-section 8 times enlarged; k, cork; m, middle bark; i, liber.
p. c, dose, 3iv-8 (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)). C. lu'cidus, growing with the preceding plant; C. ni'veus (psendochi'na), Copalchi Bark, Mexico, and C. Malam'bo, Malambo Bark, Venezuela. All produce barks that resemble closely.
2. Heve'a (brasilien"sis and guianen'sis), Elastica, Rubber. - The prepared milk-juice, official 1890-1910; S. America, east of Andes, India, near streams. Large trees, smooth straight trunks, 15-18 M. (50-60°) high; leaves trifoliate, leaflets obovate, 10 Cm. (4') long, dark green; flowers racemes. Resin (rubber), in flask-shaped, roundish masses, incised pieces showing laminated structure, lighter than water, brownish-black, internally lighter, mottled, tough, elastic, odor creosote-like, almost tasteless; solvents: chloroform, carbon disul-phide, oil of turpentine, petroleum benzin, benzene, melts at 125° C. (257° F.), soft and adhesive on cooling; heated with sulphur 10 p. c. - vulcanized and insoluble; with 40 p. c. - hard rubber (ebonite). .Milk (resembling cow's) exudes from small pick holes, being caught in small cups, emptied into large vessels and conveyed to smoking station, where wooden paddles (lower end) are dipped repeatedly into it (then sometimes into sand - adulteration), and rotated in a column of smoke until coagulated and mass has attained considerable size; contains resin (caoutchouc) 32 p. c, volatile oil, fixed oil. Base of plasters; woven into fabrics to compress and support relaxed muscles and parts; hard rubber in surgical implements - bougies, catheters, pessaries, specula, syringes, etc.