Piper Cubeba, Linne filius.
(Cubeba Cubeba, (Linne filius) Lyons.)
The dried, full-grown, unripe fruits, with not more than 5 p. c. of stems, foreign matter.
Habitat. Java, Sumatra, Borneo; cultivated in two former islands, and in \Y. Indies, Ceylon.
Syn. Cubeb., Cubebs, Tailed Cubebs, Cubeb-, Java-, or Tailed-Pepper; Br. Cubebae Fructus (Baccae), Piper Caudatum; Fr. Cubebe, Poivre a Queue; Ger. Cubebae, Kubeben.
Pi'per. L. see etymology, page 139, of Piperaceae.
Cu-be'ba. L. fr. Gr.
of Actuanus; name used since the 10th century; Pers. kababa, their native name of the plant.
Plant. - Climbing woody perennial; stem jointed, flexuous, 6 M. (20°) high; leaves 15 Cm.' ((6') long, lanceolate, leathery, shining,
Fig. 77. - Piper Cubeba.
nerved, petiolate; flowers dioecious, spikes, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long. Fruit, upper portion glob alar, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, with a straight, slender, stem-like portion (stipe, thecaphore - not a true pedicel, but stigma remnant), 5-7 Mm. (1/5-1/4') long; pericarp, with immature seed attached at its base, grayish-black, coarsely reticulate, .3 Mm.
(1/75') thick, easily cut, l-locular, 1-seeded; odor aromatic, characteristic; taste strongly aromatic, pungent. Powder, brownish; microscopically - starch-bearing cells of perisperm and fragments of pericarp with stone cells, many starch grains, .002-.012, Mm. (1/12500-1/2000') broad, and stone cells, secretion cells with yellowish, oily content, reddish with sulphuric acid; few fragments of stalk, tracheae, sclerenchy-inatous fibres; non-volatile extractive, soluble in ether, 10 p. c. Solvents: ether; alcohol. Dose, gr. 15-00 (1-4 Gm.).
Adulterations. - Fruit: Rachis or stalks (inodorous, increasing fibro-vascular tissue and ash), partially grown fruit, siftings (darker and without starch masses), black pepper and other piperaceous fruits (P. cani'num, P. cras'sipes, P. Lo'wong, P. mollis'simum, P. ribes-oi'des, P. Clu'sii, Sit'sea extra'ta, etc.), all distinguished by characteristic shape, odor, and taste. Rhamnus cathartica fruit (pedicellate and contains 4 seeds), allspice (much larger, 2-seeded, no pedicel). Juniper us communis fruit (much larger, different taste); Powder: Deteriorates unless kept in tight containers, hence best to powder only when needed, sometimes mixed with powdered allspice, flour, or starch.
Commercial. - Plant grows extensively in coffee plantations or on grounds reserved for the purpose, being supported usually on shade trees; fruit is gathered when full-grown, but before ripe - still of a green color - dried carefully in the sun, and exported from Java to Singapore, whence it enters market.
Constituents. - Volatile oil 5-15 p. c, Resin 2.5-3.5 p. c, Cubebin .4-3 p. c, Cubebic acid 1-3.5 p. c, fixed oil 1 p. c, gum 8 p. c, starch, ash 5-8 p. c. (cubeb stalks 10 p. c).
Oleum Cubebae. Oil of Cubeb, official. - (Syn., 01. Cubeb., Cubeb Oil, Oleum Cubebarum, Oil of Cubebs; Fr. Essence de Cubebe; Ger. Kubebenol.) This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the unripe fruit, is a colorless, pale green, yellowish-green liquid, characteristic odor and taste of cubeb, sp. gr. 0.915, laevorotatory, soluble in equal volume of alcohol, neutral reaction; contains a little dipentene, C10H16, but mostly sesquiterpene, cadi-nene, C15H24. If old, or distilled from old fruit, has additionally an inodorous stear-optene, cubeb camphor, C15H24.H2O, which soon deposits. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, v-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
Resin. - Extracted by ether, which also takes up volatile oil, fixed oil, cubebin, chlorophyll, and wax; evaporate off volatile oil, when cold cubebin and wax deposit; decant from these, separate fat and have left the resin, which is amorphous, soluble in alkalies, alcohol, not precipitated by alcoholic solution of lead acetate.
Fig. 78. - Cubeb: fruit, natural size, and magnified.
Cubebin, C10H10O3. - This constitutes the precipitate from oleoresin upon standing; it is white, crystalline, inodorous, inert; alcoholic solution bitter.
Cubebic Acid, C14H16O4. - Brownish, resin-like mass, soluble in alkalies, alcohol, ether, chloroform, precipitated by lead acetate; diuretic. Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.). Last three are red with sulphuric acid.
Preparations. - 1. Oleoresina Cubebae. Oleoresin of Cubeb. (Syn., Oleores. Cubeb., Extractum Cubebae AEthereum; Fr. Oleoresine de Cubebe; Ger. Extractum Cubebarum (AEtherisches), Kubebenextrakt.)
Manufacture: Percolate slowly, in a covered glass percolator, 100 Gm. with alcohol, added in successive portions, until exhausted, reclaim most of the alcohol on water-bath, transfer residue to a dish, allow remaining alcohol to evaporate spontaneously in a warm place, stirring frequently; after standing some time it deposits a waxy, crystalline precipitate, which should be rejected, and only the liquid portion dispensed (used), containing fixed oil, volatile oil, resin, chlorophyll; yield 18-25 p. c. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).
Prep.: 1. Trochisci Cubebae. Troches of Cubeb. (Syn., Troch.
Cubeb.; Fr. Pastilles de Cubebe; Ger. Kubebenpastillen.) Manufacture: Rub together until thoroughly mixed extract of glycyrrhiza 25 Gm., acacia 12 Gm., add oleoresin of cubeb 2 Gm., oil of sassafras 1 Ml. (Cc.), incorporate, form mass with syrup of tolu q. s., divide into 100 troches. Dose, 1-5 troches.
Unoff. Preps.: Extract, dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.). Fluidextract (alcohol), dose, xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Tincture, 20 p. c. (alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties. - Diuretic (resin + cubebic acid), stimulant, carminative, expectorant, disinfectant, local irritant (volatile oil), may cause headache, giddiness, nausea, purging, paralysis; it is eliminated by bronchial mucous membrane, skin, and kidneys, all being stimulated and the increased secretions disinfected; imparts to urine a peculiar odor.
Uses. - Gonorrhoea, urethritis, vesical irritability, cystitis, abscess of prostate gland, piles, chronic bronchitis, catarrh. Arabians used it similarly to black pepper, and were the first to introduce it into Europe.
1. Piper Lo'wong (Cubeba Lowong) and P. ribesoi'des (C. Wal-lich'ii), fruit of both much like the official.
2. P. cani'num (C. canina), fruit smaller than official, contracted below into a stalk half the length of the globular portion, and P. cras'sipes (C. crassipes), fruit larger than the official.