Cuii = 63.5.
The element copper (Gr.
Cyprus, Mediterranean island, whence the Romans got their best copper; L. cuper, cuprum, contr. of Cyprium), official 1870-1880, enters into alloys - brass, German silver, bell-metal, bronze, gun-metal, gold, silver, and occurs in nature as metal, sulphide, oxide, sulphate, carbonate, phosphate, and arsenate. The most common ore - copper pyrites, Cu2S,Fe2S3, has brass or gold lustre, but copper glance, Cu2S (dark gray), and malachite, Cu2CO3,-Cu(OH)2 (beautiful green), yield considerable metal. Copper is red in color, malleable, sp. gr. 8.92-8.95, good conductor of heat and electricity, by exposure becoming coated with green film of subcarbonate; forms two oxides: 1. Red - cuprous, Cu2O; 2. Black - cupric, CuO.
Tests for Copper Salts: 1. H2S or NH4SH precipitates black cupric sulphide. 2. KOH or NaOH precipitates blue cupric hydroxide, Cu(OH)2, which by boiling becomes dark brown cupric oxide, CuO; but with NH4OH get only dark blue solution - an ammonio-copper compound. 3. Potassium ferrocyanide precipitates reddish-brown cupric ferrocyanide, Cu2Fe(CN)6. 4. Polished iron, steel, or zinc immersed in an acidified copper solution becomes coated with metallic copper.
Cupri Sulphas. Copper Sulphate, CuSO4 + 5H2O. - (Syn., Cupr. Sulph. Cupric Sulphate, Blue Vitriol, Blue-stone, Roman Vitriol, Cuprum Vitriolatum, Sulfas Cupricus; Fr. Sulfate de Cuivre, Vitriol bleu, Couperouse bleu; Ger. Cuprum sulfuricum, Kupfer-(vitriol) -sulfat, Blauer (vitriol) Galitzenstein, Schwefelsaures Kupfer.)
Manufacture: Heat copper with sulphuric acid, shake with hot water, evaporate, crystallize - Cu + 2H2SO4 = CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2, or may heat copper pyrites. It is in deep blue, triclinic crystals, blue granular powder, odorless, nauseous, metallic taste, slowly efflorescent, soluble in water (2.5), boiling water (.5), alcohol (500), glycerin (2.8); aqueous solution blue, acid; contains 62.97-66.79 p. c.
of anhydrous copper sulphate, corresponding to 98.5 p. c. of the crystallized salt. Tests: 1. Heat to 30 ° C. (86 ° F.) loses part of water of crystallization, becoming a pale blue, amorphous powder; at 100° C. (212° F.) loses more water, at 200° C. (392° F.) a white amorphous powder remains, and at higher heat sulphur dioxide and oxygen are given off, leaving a residue of black cupric oxide. 2. Aqueous solution
Fig. 462. - Copper sulphate crystal.
Fig. 463. - Copper acetate crystal.
1 drop on bright iron - red film deposits (metallic copper). 3. Aqueous solution, + barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Impurities: Other metals. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, tonic, astringent, gr. 1/8 - 1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.), in pill; emetic, gr. 2-10 (.13 - .6 Gm.), mixed with sugar or in solution, repeated in 15 minutes if necessary.
Properties and Uses. - Astringent, tonic, irritant, escharotic, emetic, stimulant. Once used for epilepsy, and now for chronic ulcerative diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, croup, malignant sore throat. Externally - foul ulcers, caustic for warts, fungoids, callous, bleeding surfaces, chancres, ulcerative stomatitis, gangrene of pharynx, mercurial sore mouth, conjunctivitis, acne, eczema. Convenient forms for application are the crystal, cuprum aluminatum (lapis divinus, pierre divine, pierre ophthalmique, in pencils or stick), and the wash (1/2-l -2 p. c). Used also as a test for diabetic sugar, and in making many green pigments, as Scheele's green (arsenite), Paris green (aceto-arsenite), Bremen green (hydroxide), and others.
Poisoning: Large doses gastro-intestinal irritant; long-continued small doses cause bronchial catarrh, colic, vomiting, diarrhoea (bloody, mucous), tenesmus, salivation, anaemia, wasting, jaundice, fatty liver, nervousness, thirst, hurried respiration, delirium, small, rapid pulse, convulsions, coma. Give egg-white to form insoluble compound, then emetics at once, also reduced iron, weak solution potassium ferro-cyanide (chemical antidote), magnesium oxide, tannin, opium, again empty stomach and saturate system with potassium iodide, heat, stimulants.
Incompatibles: Alkalies, their carbonates, sulphides, mineral salts (except sulphates), lime water, iodides, vegetable astringents. Allied Salts:
1. Capri Acetas. Copper Acetate, Cu(C2H3O2)2, official 1880-1890. - Obtained by dissolving verdigris in acetic acid, or precipitate solution of lead acetate with copper sulphate. It is in deep bluish-green rhombic prismatic crystals, efflorescent, odorless, nauseating metallic taste, soluble in water (15), alcohol (135). Impurities: Alkalies, alkaline earths, iron, lead, zinc, chloride, sulphate, calcium. Dose, gr. 1/8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.). Solutions should be 1/5-1 p. c.
Properties and Uses. - Skin diseases, scrofula, intermittents, epilepsy, in collyria, aphthous ulcers, gonorrhoea.
2. Cupri Subacetas. Copper Subacetate. Verdigris, Cu2O(C2H3O2)2, official 1830-1880. - Obtained by subjecting grape husks to acetic fermentation, then stratifying them in earthen vessels with sheets of copper for 4-6 weeks, when the sheets upon drying and exposing to air for several weeks are coated with verdigris, which is scraped off and the plates replaced for a second action, etc.; the verdigris is dried in the sun, and occurs in masses, having bluish-green color, composed of many silky crystals, coppery taste, insoluble in alcohol, soluble in ammonia, HC1, diluted H2SO4, partially in water.
Properties and Uses. - Stimulant, escharotic; externally - indolent ulcers, tuberculated skin affections, warts, chancres. Not used internally.
3. Cuprum Ammoniatum. Ammoniated Copper, Cu(NH3)4SO4,H2O. - Obtained by rubbing together copper sulphate 4, ammonium carbonate 3, until effervescence ceases, drying. Deep azure-blue color, ammoniacal odor. Epilepsy, chorea. Dose, gr. 1/2-1 (.03-.06 Gm.). Copper Arsenite (Scheele's green) may be employed in cholera infantum,