4. Agar'Icus Musca'Rius (Amani'Ta Musca'Ria), Fly Fungus (Agaric)

Agar'Icus Musca'Rius (Amani'Ta Musca'Ria), Fly Fungus (Agaric). N. Europe, Russia. This mushroom grows in the autumn mainly, under pine trees; stalk is white, tuberous at base, 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') high, 1.8 Cm. (3/4') thick. cup (pileus) 10-15 Cm. (4-60 broad, orange-red; contains chiefly muscarine (muscarina), C5H15NO3, a colorless, odorless, crystalline, deliquescent alkaloid, yielding deliquescent salts (nitrate, sulphate); all usually occur as brown, syrupy liquids, soluble in water, alcohol; resembles Calabar bean in action; antihydrotic, antispasmodic, myotic. Reduces force and frequency of pulse, contracts muscles of intestines and bladder, increases abdominal secretions, causes dyspnoea, paralysis, death. Given for intestinal torpor, duodenal catarrh, diabetes, antidote to atropine, to replace physos-tigmine. Dose (muscarine), gr. 1/30_1/15 (.002-.004 Gm.).

5. Cetra'Ria Islan'Dica, Iceland Moss

Cetra'Ria Islan'Dica, Iceland Moss. Parmeliaceae. The dried plant, official 1840-1900; N. hemisphere (N. America, etc.). Thallus 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, foliaceous, fringed, and channeled lobes, brownish above, whitish beneath, apothecia (fruits) brown, flattish, brittle, inodorous; taste mucilaginous, bitter; contains cetraric acid (bitter) 2-3 p. c, which removed leaves digestible food product containing proteids 2.8 p. c, fat .4 p. c, cellulose 4-6 p. c., lichenin (starch) 79.2 p. c, related substance, water 6 p. c, ash 6.99 p. c. Demulcent (starch), tonic (cetraric acid), nutritive; chronic catarrhs, pulmonary

Fig. 8.   Cetraria islandica: ap, apothecium.

Fig. 8. - Cetraria islandica: ap, apothecium.

affections (bronchitis, consumption), chronic diarrhoea, dysentery; bread, instead of acacia. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); decoction, 5 p. c, ℥j-4 (30-120 Ml. (Cc.)).

6. Lecano'Ra Tarta'Rea, Lacmus (Litmus)

Lecano'Ra Tarta'Rea, Lacmus (Litmus). Holland. This is a blue pigment obtained from this and other lichens by powdering, mixing with potassium carbonate, water, and stale urine (or other ammo-niacal liquid), then exposing to the air for fermentation. The liquid turns gradually red, purple, and blue, when it is mixed with enough chalk to be formed into 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') rectangular cakes - requires 6 weeks; chiefly produced in Holland. By slightly different processes on the same lichens we obtain the allied pigments, orchil and cudbear. Litmus is used as an indicator to determine the acidity or alkalinity of urine and other animal fluids - acids turning it red, alkalies blue; orchil is a deep purple, pasty mass, used as a dye; cudbear (persio) is a purplish-red powder, used as a dye and to color various medicinal preparations; tincture (75 p. c. alcohol) 10 p. c; compound tincture 1.5 p. c, caromel 10 p. c.