Ara'Lia Spino'Sa, Hercules' Club, Prickly Elder. Araliaceae. The bark, official 1820-1880; N. America. Prickly tree, 3-9 M. (10-30°) high, leaflets crowded at summit; flowers white; bark in quills, curves, gray, prickly, inside yellowish, aromatic, acrid; contains araliin, volatile oil, resin. Used as stimulant, diaphoretic, demulcent (emetic, cathartic), for rheumatism, skin eruptions, syphilis, colic, dyspepsia, toothache, vomiting, nervousness; externally antidote to rattlesnake-bites; in infusion, decoction, tincture, masticatory. Dose, gr. 30-00 (2-4 Gm.).
7. A. nudicau'lis, Wild, Virginian, or False Sarsaparilla. - The root (rhizome), official 1820-1880; N. America. Small shrub, stem scarcely above ground, leaf single, petiole .3 M. (1°) high; leaflets ovate, serrate, flowers greenish. Root .3 M. (1°) long, 5 Mm. (1/5) thick, annulate, brownish-gray, inside whitish, spongy pith, aromatic odor and taste; contains volatile oil, resin, starch. Used as stimulant, diaphoretic, alterative - like sarsaparilla, in infusion, decoction. Dose, gr. 30-60 (2-4 Gm.). A. racemo'sa, American Spikenard, Spignet, dried rhizome and roots; stem herbaceous, branched, 1 M. (40') high, leaflets heart-ovate, serrate; rhizome 12 Cm. (5') long, 5 Cm. (2') thick, pale brown, internally whitish, nodes approximate, often cut longitudinally, roots numerous, .5-7 M. (20-30') long, 5-25 Mm. (1/5-1") thick; stronger aromatic odor and mucilaginous, pungent taste than preceding - otherwise similar; fluidextract (67 p. c. alcohol).
Pa'Nax Quinquefo'Lium (Aralia Quinquefolia), Panax, Ginseng. The root, official 1840-1880; N. America. Small shrub, .3 M. (1°) high, smooth, leaflets 5's, serrate; flowers yellowish, fruit scarlet; root 5-12.5 Cm. (2-50 long, fusiform, annulate, branched, brownish-yellow, wood yellowish, sweetish, aromatic; contains panaquilon, resin, volatile oil, starch, gum. Used as stimulant, demulcent, stomachic, in infusion, decoction, tincture. The Chinese Ginseng (Aralia Gin'seng) is very similar to this, slightly larger. Used natively as nervine, aphrodisiac. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.).