The dried leaves, collected from older parts of the tree, with not more than 3 p. c of stems, fruits, foreign matter.
Eu-ca-lyp tus. L. fr. Gr. έύ, well, good, +
covered - i. e., the calyx-limb covers the flower bud before expansion and afterward, at anthesis, falls off in the shape of a lid or cover - the outer operculum of the bud (not the inner of united petals).
Glob'u-lus. L. globulus, globulosus, a little ball, globular - i. e., the thick button-like form of the fruit.
Plant. - Rapid-growing tree, 60-90 M. (200-300°) high, 3-6 M. (10-20°) thick (the largest being 141 M. (470°) high, 27 M. (87°) in circumference - E. amygdalina); bark ash-color; flowers Nov.-Dec, hermaphrodite, pedunculate, pinkish-white, buds very glaucous, consisting of calyx-tube covered by conical lid (operculum) of calyx-limb and united petals, fruit capsules, 18 Mm. (3/4) broad, half-globular, 4-5-ribbed, dehiscing at apex, many-seeded. Leaves, lanceolately scythe-shaped, 8-30 Cm. (3-12') long, 2-7.5 Cm. (4/5-3') broad, acute, acuminate, base unequal, obtuse, rounded, connected with a twisted petiole, 5-35 Mm. (1/5-1 2/5') long, margins slightly uneven, revolute; coriaceous, both surfaces pale yellowish-green, glaucous, glabrous, glandular-punctate and with numerous small, circular, brown dots of
Fig. 278. - Eucalyptus globulus: a, b, leaves from old twig; c, from young twig.
cork; veins of the first order anastomosing, forming a line nearly parallel with the margin, stomata deeply depressed (level or elevated in spurious leaves); odor slightly aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter, cooling. Powder, greenish-gray; microscopically - fragments of palisade cells with oil-secretion reservoirs and yellow oily content, calcium oxalate crystals (rosette aggregates), portions of fibro-vascular bundles, bast-fibres. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
Adulterations. - Leaves: Various leaves having stomata level with leaf-surface, not deeply depressed as in genuine; Powder: Should not reveal epidermal fragments with guard-cells of stomata visible upon vertical view, nor should any fragments, without stomata, exhibit wavy epidermal cells upon vertical view; Oil: Oils of various species of Eucalyptus containing much phellandrene, castor oil 12-20 p. c.
Commercial. - The blue-gum tree of Tasmania (exuding blue-gum), discovered by Labillardiere, French botanist, 1792, and introduced into Europe, 1856, is sensitive to cold, but under favorable conditions attains the height of 15 M. (50°) in 6 years; there are 135 species, the wood of many being hard, resinous and valuable. The aborigines knew something of its virtues, while the Spaniards used it for fever and ague, 1867, but Drs. Brunei and Ramel extolled and proved its antiperiodic properties, 1868-1869. Leaves are picked, dried carefully, and enter trade very little broken, those that are ovate, equilateral, thin and sessile, "junior," being rejected; only the Australian variety should be used, as they vary less in the yield of oil; however, most of our supply comes from California.
Constituents. - Volatile oil 6 p. c, tannin, cerylic alcohol, 3 resins (1 acid, crystallizable), eucalyptic acid.
Oleum Eucalypti. Oil of Eucalyptus, official. - (Syn., 01. Eucalypt., Eucalyptus Oil; Fr. Essence d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptusol.) This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves (old leaves containing very little oil), is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic, aromatic, somewhat camphoraceous odor, pungent, spicy, cooling taste, soluble in 4 vols. of 70 p. c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.915, dextrorotatory; contains at least 70 p. c. of eucalyptol (cineol), C10H18O, 20 p., c. of cymene, C10H14, eudesmol, C10H16O, phellandrene, C10H16, eucalyptene, C10H18, terpene - d-pinene (small amount), C10H14, also a little valeric, butyric and capronic aldehydes; with hydrochloric acid yields eucalypteol (eucalyptene hydrochloride), C10H16.2HCl, in white hygroscopic, aromatic crystals; with phosphoric oxide yields eucalyptolene, thickish liquid. Tests: 1. Mix oil (2) with glacial acetic acid (4), add saturated solution of sodium nitrite (3), stir gently - no crystals of phellandrene nitrite (abs. of other eucalyptus oils containing much phellandrene). Impurities: castor oil 12-20 p. c, etc. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, ev-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc.)).
Eucalyptol. Eucalyptol, C10H18O, official. - (Syn., Cineol, Cajuputol; Fr. Eucalyptol, Oxyde de Terpilene; Ger. Eucalyptus Kampfer.) This organic compound (found also in cajuput, canella, curcuma, laurus, mentha, rosemary, salvia, santonica) is the most valuable constituent of eucalyptus oil, being a neutral substance with a definite chemical composition, which is not true of the oil, and may be obtained by dis-r tilling the volatile oil and placing in a freezing mixture that portion coming over between 150-175° C. (302-347° F.), from which it crystallizes in long, colorless needles; a more satisfactory method is to treat the oil with hydrochloric acid gas or phosphoric acid, add warm water to separate eucalyptol on the surface, then wash with dilute alkali solution and distil. It is a colorless liquid, characteristic, aromatic, distinctly camphoraceous odor, pungent, spicy, cooling taste; slightly soluble in water, miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, sp. gr. 0.922, boils at 176° C. (349° F.), congeals at 0° C. (32° F.). Tests: 1. Optically inactive (dist. from oil of eucalyptus, many other volatile oils). 2. Place 1 Ml. (Cc.) in freezing mixture, add phosphoric acid (1) - solid, white, crystalline mass (cineol-phosphoric acid), + warm water - eucalyptol separates. 3. Shake 5 Ml. (Cc.) with sodium hydroxide T. S. (5) - eucalyptol volume not diminished (abs. of saponifiable oils). 4. Alcoholic solution (1 in 10) neutral; of this 5 Ml. (Cc), + a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - not brown or violet (abs. of phenols). Impurities: Oil of eucalyptus, volatile oils, saponifiable oils, phenols. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, ev-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc).
Preparations. - 1, Fluidextractum Eucalypti. Fluidextract of Eucalyptus. (Syn., Fldext. Eucalypt., Fluid Extract of Eucalyptus; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptusfluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 75 p. c alcohol, reserve first 80 Ml. (Cc). Dose, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).
Unoff. Preps.: Leaves: Extract, dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-6 Gm.). Infusion, dose, ℥j - 2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Tincture, 15 p. c, dose, 3-ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Oil: Unguentum Eucalypti (Br.), 10 p. c Water (Aqua), dose, 36j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc)). Eucalyptol: Petroxolin, 20 p. c + liquid petroxolin 80. Spray (Nebula), 5 p. c + light liquid petrolatum 95.
Properties. - Antiperiodic, antipyretic, expectorant, stimulant, astringent, antiseptic, disinfectant, diaphoretic; like quinine arrests white blood-corpuscle movement; increases flow of saliva, gastric juice, heart action, appetite, digestion; large doses produce indigestion, diarrhoea, vomiting, muscular weakness, low temperature, renal and cerebral congestion, paralyzed respiration, death; destroys low forms of life, reduces arterial tension and enlarged spleen. It antagonizes malaria thus: 1, its dead leaves elevate the low moist soil; 2, being a rapid grower, its leaves, roots, etc., absorb much malarial soil-water and noxious germs, thus causing the surrounding country to become dry, thereby purifying the atmosphere; 3, its enormous foliage protects large areas from direct sun-rays which favor the generation of animalculse; 4, its aseptic emanations purify the air. Owing to these properties it is cultivated largely in malarial districts, to render them sanitative, and to reclaim infected localities, as portions of Australia, Jamaica, Roman Campagna, etc It is eliminated by skin, bronchia, kidneys, lungs, with more or less irritation, imparting odor to breath and urine.
Uses. - Intermittent fever, genito-urinary and pulmonary catarrh, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane affections, asthma (smoked with stramonium). Used when quinine is contra-indicated, intermittents, typhoid, scarlatina, whooping-cough, cancer, hemorrhages; externally
- as antiseptic in ulcers, gonorrhoea, spongy gums, gleet, deodorizer in diseases with disagreeable odor, preventive of putrefaction; spray beneficial in diphtheria, gangrene of lungs, fetid bronchitis. Tincture (1) added to codliver oil (100) removes fishy flavor; the leaves deter moths entering woolen cloth; bark used for tanning, dyeing.
Incompatibles: Agents promoting waste, alkalies, mineral acids and salts.
1, Eucalyptus amygdali'na, Peppermint Tree. - Australia; has peppermint odor, and being more accessible, its foliage is much used for
Fig. 279. - Panax (Aralia) quinquefolium.
obtaining eucalyptus kino, and volatile oil, which oil is claimed to be almost entirely without eucalyptol; 2, E. dumo'sa; 3, E. obli'qua (Stringy-bark tree); 4, E. Leucox'ylon (Siderox'ylon) (Iron-bark tree), and 5, E. oleo'sa (Mallee tree). The yield of these in volatile oil is varying, but Bosisto obtained the following results, which are only of comparative interest, thus for every 100 pounds (45.5 Kg.) of each variety: No. 1 gave 50 ounces (1.5 L.); No. 2, 30 ounces (.9 L.); No. 3, 8 ounces (.2 L.); No. 4, 16 ounces (.5 L.); No. 5, 20 ounces (.6 L.), while the official yielded 12 ounces (.3 L.).