II Tannic Acid. 1. Glyceritum Acidi Tannici. Glycerite of Tannic Acid. (Syn., Glycer. Acid. Tann., Glycerite of Tannin; Fr. Glycere de Tannin, Glycerine tannique; Ger. Tanninglycerit (glycerol.)
Manufacture: 20 p. c. Add, in small successive portions, tannic acid 20 Gm. to hot glycerin 80 Gm., agitate until dissolved, strain through purified cotton. Dose, x-30 (.06-2 Ml. (Cc.)); externally.
2. Trochisci Acidi Tannici. Troches of Tannic Acid. (Syn., Troch. Acid. Tann.; Fr. Tablettes (Pastilles) de Tannin; Ger. Tanninpastillen.)
3. Ungventum Acidi Tannici. Ointment of Tannic Acid, (Syn., Ung. Acid. Tann.; Fr. Pommade de Tannin; Ger. Tanninsalbe.)
Manufacture: 20 p. c. Dissolve tannic acid 20 Gm. in glycerin 20 Gm., with gentle heat, mix thoroughly with ointment 60 Gm., avoiding iron utensils.
Unoff. Preps.: Collodium Stypticum, tannic acid 20 Gm., flexible collodion 80. Suppositoria Acidi Tannici (Br., each 3 gr.; .2 Gm.).
III Gallic Acid. 1. Pyrogallol. Pyrogallol, C6H3(OH)3. (Syn., Pyrogall., Pyrogallic Acid, Acidum Pyrogallicum; Fr. Acide pyro-gallique; Ger. Pyrogallolum, Pyrogallussaure.) Trihydroxybenzene (triatomic phenol) is obtained by heating gallic acid for half an hour under pressure with water (3), boiling with animal charcoal, filtering, evaporating - HC7H5O5 + heat = C6H5(OH)3 + CO2; yield 75 p. c. It is in light, white, nearly white laminae, fine needles, odorless, bitter taste, acquiring grayish tint on exposure, soluble in water (1.7), alcohol (1.3), ether (1.0), melts at 131° C. (208° F.). Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 10) reduces solutions of silver, gold and mercury salts, even in the cold; incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly acid, colorless, yellowish, brown on exposure from absorbing oxygen; with a few drops of ferric chloride T. S. - brownish-red; with fresh ferrous sulphate T. S. - blue color. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.
Properties. - I. Nutgall: Astringent, tonic; constringes muscular tissue, thus checking secretions, hemorrhages, local inflammations, etc.
II. Tannic Acid: Local astringent. Internally - contracts bloodvessels, restrains peristalsis (constipates), coagulates mucous secretions, prevents secretion of gastric and intestinal juices, precipitates pepsin, etc.; it is converted into gallic acid in the intestines, and until this change is effected it cannot become absorbed to act as a remote or systemic astringent, simply being able to control locally gastric and intestinal bleeding. Externally - astringent, coagulates blood (forming a clot), albumin, and gelatin (tans tissues), is haemostatic, antiseptic, depressant, irritant; the salts have no astringency.
III. Gallic Acid : Mild astringent, does not coagulate blood, hence recognized only as remote astringent, but not to raw and bleeding surfaces; internally - controls systemic hemorrhages (contracts bloodvessels), decreases secretion of urine and sweat; does not constipate like tannic acid, and is eliminated by the kidneys unchanged.
Uses. - I. Nutgall: Chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, gleet, leucor-rhoea, antidote to tartar emetic and alkaloids (emetine, morphine, colchicine, strychnine, etc.), constringes the stomach, thus delaying absorption, forming of the alkaloids insoluble tannates. In cases of poisoning give infusion freely. Locally infusion as gargle for relaxed mucous membrane of mouth, throat,vagina, rectum; ointment with 5-10 p. c. opium, good in hemorrhoids after inflammatory stage. Chiefly used for obtaining tannic and gallic acids, for ink, dyeing, tanning.
II. Tannic Acid: Hemorrhages (epistaxis, uterine, etc.), diarrhoea, dyspepsia, cholera, relaxed uvula, coryza, inflamed fauces, diphtheria, toothache, aphthae, excessive salivation, leueorrhoea, chapped nipples, gleet, gonorrhoea, ulcers, piles, chilblains, chronic bronchitis, whooping-cough, phthisis, influenza, ozaena, fissures, hemorrhoids, prolapsus ani and uteri, vesical catarrh, hemorrhage after extracting teeth, spongy gums (contracts vessels, checks absorption, hence loosening of teeth), obtunds sensitive dentine, either alone or combined with morphine and creosote, to toughen mucous membranes, skin around nipples, conjunctivitis, erectile tumors, ingrowing toe-nails; aqueous solutions (1 to 50) may be injected into urethra and bladder, but should never be used hypodermically.
Fig. 84. - Chinese nutgalls.
III. Gallic Acid: Menorrhagia, purpura, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematemesis, hemorrhage of stomach, intestines, lungs, kidneys, night-sweats, polyuria, Bright's disease, dyspepsia, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, chronic ulcers, pyrosis, alopecia.
IV. Pyrogallol: Psoriasis, syphilitic ulcers, lupus, epithelioma, parasiticide for ringworm. Should not be applied over extensive surface, as absorption may poison; not used internally; ointment 1-5-10 p. c.