A dried extract prepared from decoctions of the leaves and twigs.
Habitat. E. India Islands.
Syn. Pale Catechu, Catechu Pallidum, Catechu, Tarra Japonica, Gambier; Fr. Gambir cubique; Ger. Gambir Catechu, Gutta Gambir. Ou-rou-pa'ri-a. Native name, fr. Gr.
tail +, - i. e., the seed. Gam'bir. Native Malayan name of the extract.
Plant. - Strong shrubby climber, stem woody, often angular; leaves oblong-ovate, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, petiolate, acuminate, entire, smooth; flowers small, pinkish, in clusters, calyx and corolla 5-divided, stamens 5, ovary 2-celled; fruit 2.5 Cm. (1') long, narrow, ovoid tapering at each end, dehiscent, pericarp dry; seeds numerous, minute, pale brown, rough, tailed at each end. Extract (gambir)„ usually in cubical or rectangular pieces 20-30 Mm. (4/5 - 1 1/5') broad, grayish-, reddish-brown, dull, porous, friable; internally light brown, dull earthy color; inodorous; taste bitterish, very astringent; microscopically - numerous acicular crystals, non-glandular hairs, tracheae, few starch grains, .005-015 Mm. (1/5000-1/1650) broad, bacteria (?). Tests: 1. Macerate 1 Gm. with water (50), brownish filtrate, + dilute ferric chloride T. S. - intense green; with copper sulphate T. S. - no precipitate. Solvents: water dissolves 65 p. c; alcohol GO p. c. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
Fig. 394. - Ourouparia Gambir: blooming twig with the tendrils.
Commercial. - The extract is made by boiling young leafy shoots in water for 6 hours, with continued stirring and bruising, evaporating decoction to proper consistency, allowing to cool under constant and peculiar stirring; within half an hour the gambir suddenly contracts and thickens, possibly by the sudden crystallization of the catechin. It is allowed to harden in various forms, the purest in thin cakes, flakes, small cubes. Nearly all exported in wooden cases from Singapore.
Constituents. - Tannic acid 25-38 p. c, Catechin (catechuic acid) 20 29 p. c, ash 9 p. c.
PREPARTIONS. - 1. Tinctura Gambir Composita. Compound Tincture of Gambir. (Syn., Tr. Gambir Co., Compound Tincture of Pale Catechu; Fr. Teinture de Gambir; Ger. Gambirtinktur.)
Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract. Infusion. Pulvis Gambir Compositus, 40 p. c, + kino 20, krameria 20, Saigon cinnamon 10, myristica 10, dose, gr. 10-45 (.6-3 Gm.). Tinctura Pectoralis, Bateman's Pectoral Drops - comp. tinct. of gambir 6.4, tinct. of opium 4.2, spt. of camphor 4, oil of anise .1, caramel 1.6, dil. alc. q. s. 100. Troches, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.), dose, 1 occasionally.
Properties. - Similar to tannic acid, astringent, tonic. The darker colored product is most powerful, acting more energetically and harshly than kino.
Uses. - Diarrhoea, leuchorrhoea, gonorrhoea, cough, chronic sore throat, phthisis, bronchitis, hemorrhages, relaxed uvula, ulcerated nipples, chronic ulcers, relaxed oral mucous membrane and spongy gums (mouth-wash). In the arts for tanning, dyeing.