Gentiana Elliot'Tii (Catesboe'I), Elliott's Gentian. The root, official 1820-1880; United States, grassy swamps. Perennial herb (20-60 Cm. (8-24') high, rough; leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, lanceolate, serrate; flowers Oct., blue, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long; corolla 10 segments, 5 inner fringed; root resembles the official; constituents and uses similar; in infusion, wine, tincture. G. purpu'rea (purplish flowers), G. pannon'ica (dark purple flowers), and G. puncta'ta (yellow, purple-dotted flowers); all grow along with official, and collected for it.
Sabba'Tia Angula'Ris, American Centaury. The herb, official 1820-1880; United States. Plant .3-.6 M. (1-2°) high, stem branched above, square, smooth; leaves ovate, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, heart-shaped; flowers deep rose, central star greenish, wheel-shaped, 5-parted, bitter; contains bitter principle, fat, erythrocentaurin. Used as tonic, febrifuge, diaphoretic, rheumatism, sore throat, fevers. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.). S. Elliot'tii, Quinine Flower; S. campes'tris, and Erythroe'a Centau'rium, European Centaury; all may be used similarly.
Swer'Tia Chiray'Ita, Chirata. The dried plant, official 1860-1910; N. India, mountains. Annual plant, 1 M. (3°) high, yellowish or purplish-brown; stem cylindrical below, quadrangular above, branched; wood yellowish, thin, enclosing large separable pith; root simple; leaved opposite, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, entire, 6 Cm. (2.50 long; flowers small, panicles; fruit capsule, ovoid, acute, 1-celled, many-seeded; odor slight; taste intensely bitter; solvents: diluted alcohol, water partially; contains ophelic acid, chiratin, ash 4-8 p. c (K, Ca, Mg, carbonates and phosphates). Tonic, febrifuge, stomachic, laxative, hepatic stimulant; large doses nauseate; indigestion, constipation. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.; fluidextract (diluted alcohol), exv-30 (1-2 Ml. (Cc.)); tincture, 10 p. c (alcohol 67 p. c), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)). S. angustifo'lia, and S. pulchel'la, both have entire stems square, pith thin or wanting; less bitter but used to adulterate the preceding.
Frase'Ra Carolineri'Sis (Walte'Ri), American Colombo. The root, official 1820-1880; United States. Perennial herb, 1-2.5 M. (3-8°) high, dark purple stem 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick; leaves in whorls 4-6, entire, spatu-late; flowers July, yellow, purple-dotted, large; root fusiform, fleshy, yellow. Usually in segments 2.5 Cm. (1') thick, annulate, orange-brown; odor gentian-like; taste sweet, bitter; constituents and uses like gentian. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
Menyan'Thes Trifolia'Ta, Buckbean, Bogbean, Water Shamrock. The root (rhizome), official 1820-1840; dried leaves; United States. Perennial herb, 2.5-3.7 M. (8-12°) high; rhizome 1-2.5 Cm. (1-10 thick, slightly longer, branching, black; leaves on petioles, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, ternate, leaflets sessile, 5-8 Cm. (2-3') long, obtuse, obovate, entire or crenate, smooth, pale green, inodorous,bitter; containsmeny-anthin (glucoside, yields menyanthol), mucilage, albumin, saccharose, fat, ash 10 p. c. Used as tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, antiscorbutic, vermifuge; large doses emetic, purgative; rheumatism, scrofula, scurvy, dropsy, intermittents, jaundice, dyspepsia, worms. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).