Caffeina, Caffeine (Theine), C8H10N4O2+ H2O, official.

Thea sinensis, Linne, and Coffea arabica, Linne.

A feeble basic substance (alkaloid) from the leaves of the former, and seeds of the latter (Rubiaceae), also occurring in other plants; or prepared synthetically.

Habitat. S. E. Asia, China, India, Japan; cultivated. Syn. Thea Bohea, Black Tea, Thea viridis, Green Tea; Fr. The; Ger. Thee. The'a. L. see etymology, above, of Theaceae.

Si-nen'sis. L. (Chinensis) Chinese, of or belonging to China - i. e., its chief habitat.

Plant. - Evergreen shrub 1.2-2 M. (4-6°) high, much branched, bark brown, young twigs downy; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, petiolate, acute at both ends, oval, irregularly serrate, veins prominent, dark green; flowers in winter, 2.5 Cm. (1') wide, yellowish-white; fruit 3-celled trigonous capsule, with thin brown woody pericarp; diluted alcohol or boiling water exhausts the leaves. Dose, 3j_2 (4-8 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Prussian blue, indigo, turmeric, gypsum; the three first impart color to water, the last soon deposits; various leaves, recognized by shape, venation, margin, etc.

Commercial. - The plant, springing from seed, begins to yield satisfactory leaves in 3 years, and at 7 attains perfection, being about the height of a man. Three collections are made yearly (Feb., Apr., June), the first, consisting mostly of young leaves, having greatest value. Commercially we have green and black, the former being collected more carefully and quickly dried and containing most tannin, the latter, owing to slower process, undergoing partial fermentation which changes color and often impairs quality.

Constituents. - Caffeine (Theine) 1-5 p. c, volatile oil .6-1 p. c, theophylline (isomeric with theobromine), ademine, tannin 11-21 p. c, boheic acid, albumin, resin, wax, ash 4-6 p. c. (14 p. c. being phosphoric acid); leaves yield 40 p. c. of aqueous extract.

Theophyllina. Theophylline, C7H8N4O2 + H2O, official. - (Syn., Theophyll., Dimethylxanthine; Synthetic - Theocine; Ger. Theo-phyllinum, Theophyllin, Theocin.) This organic base (alkaloid), isomeric with theobromine, is obtained sparingly from tea leaves, but mostly synthetically by a German patent under the name of theocine, wherein ammonia, carbon dioxide, potassium cyanide, acetic and formic acids are employed in a series of 12 reactions, and in fact becomes our first alkaloid made on a commercial scale by strictly synthetic methods. It is a white, crystalline powder, odorless, bitter taste, permanent, soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxides (dif. from caffeine), ammonia water, alcohol (80), water (100), more so in hot water, sparingly in ether; saturated aqueous solution neutral; melts at 271° C. (520° F.). Tests: 1. Dissolve .01 Gm. in hydrochloric acid 1 Ml. (Cc.), add potassium chlorate .1 Gm., evaporate to dryness, invert dish over one containing a few drops of ammonia water - residue purple, destroyed by

Fig. 263.   Thea sinensis.

Fig. 263. - Thea sinensis.

fixed alkalies. 2. Aqueous solution with tannic acid T. S. - precipitate, soluble in excess of reagent; when dried to constant weight - loses 9.5 p. c; incinerate .1 Gm. - ash non-weighable. Impurities: Caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, organic substances.

Properties and Uses. - Claimed to be the best diuretic, increasing amount of urine as well as solids; cardiac affections, nephritis, dropsy; similar to caffeine and theobromine, but much more effective; may produce gastric disturbances, renal irritation, which can be obviated by using its salt - theophylline sodio-acetate. Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.), in warm tea.

Preparations. - (Unoff.) Fluidextract, dose, exv-60 (1-4 ML (Cc.)). Infusion {Tea), dose, ad libitum.

Properties and Uses. - Similar to coffee, under Rubiaceae, which see.

Allied Plants:

1. Thea (Camel'Lia, After George Joseph Camel Or Camelli, A Dutch Jesuit Missionary And Botanist) Japon'Ica

Thea (Camel'Lia, After George Joseph Camel Or Camelli, A Dutch Jesuit Missionary And Botanist) Japon'Ica. Japan. An ornamental shrub with poisonous seed. T. oleo'sa (Camellia oleif'era) and T. drupif'era. Seeds resemble those of T. sinensis and yield a bland fixed oil - that of T. drupifera being fragrant.

2. Flex Paraguen'Sis (Paraguayen'Sis), Mate, Paraguay Tea

Flex Paraguen'Sis (Paraguayen'Sis), Mate, Paraguay Tea. Ili-caceae (Aquifoliaceae); Brazil. Leaves contain caffeine .2-1.6 p. c, tannin 10-16 p. c, volatile oil, stearoptene, wax, glucoside, proteids 5 p. c, ash 4-8 p. c.

3. Helian'Themum Canaden'Se, Frost-Wort (-Weed)

Helian'Themum Canaden'Se, Frost-Wort (-Weed). Cistaceae. The dried herb, official 1850-1880; N. America. Perennial, 15-45 Cm. (6-180 high, hoary; leaves 2.5 Cm. (1') long, woolly beneath; flowers 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, yellow, 5's, calyx pubescent, bitter, astringent; contains tannin l1p. c, bitter glucoside. Used as a tonic, astringent, alterative for scrofula, syphilis, diarrhoea; gargle in scarlatina, sore throat; prurigo; large doses emetic. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); decoction, extract, fluidextract (dil. alc), infusion.