Commercial. - Plants, like lemon and orange, do not thrive in cold latitudes, becoming woody and less sweet, and while formerly the wild owing to hardy, persistent rapaeious habit, supplied the demand, now it is cultivated extensively by planting cuttings in rows, 4 feet
Fig. 198. - Glycyrrhiza glabra, var. typica.
(1.3 M.) apart. Roots are dug when sweetest, autumn of 4th year, by removing the earth 2-3 feet (.6-1 M.) deep, the entire length of rows, thereby exposing subterranean portion and allowing easy pulling up of whole plants, from which roots are taken, cleaned, washed, trimmed, assorted, cut into suitable lengths, and marketed via Alicante, Tortosa, Hamburg, in bundles, bales, bags. There are two varieties: 1. Spanish (Italian, Turkish, Alicante, Tortosa - G. glabra, var. typica), usually unpeeled and for a long time most esteemed, but as bitterness and acridity reside in the bark it now constitutes only one-tenth of that consumed; 2, Russian (G. glabra, var. glandulifera), usually peeled, larger, richer in glycyrrhizin and extractives, and in far greater demand. The Calabrian is preferred by many, while the Italian and Sicilian are consumed at home for making the extract.
Adulterations. - Roots of allied species, worm-eaten, decayed and discolored pieces, fibrous roots (little sweetness), underground stem having thin central pith, otherwise closely resembling root.
CONSTITUENTS. - -Glycyrrhizin, C44H68NO18, 6-8 p. c., Glycyramarin, C36H57NO13 (bitter principle, mostly in the bark), saccharose, glucose, asparagin 2-4 p. c, fat .8 p. c., volatile oil .03 p. c., gum, tannin, starch, resin, yellow coloring matter, ash 5-7 p. c.
Glycyrrhizin. - This is combined with ammonia, being called glycyr-rhizate of ammonium or glycyrrhizic acid. It is a tribasic acid (gluco-side) obtained from cold infusion by coagulating albumin with heat, filtering, precipitating with sulphuric acid, washing precipitate with water, dissolving it in alcohol to which a little ether has been added (or in very weak ammonia water, 1 to 10), filtering, evaporating; it is very soluble in water, sparingly in alcohol, ether, when boiled with diluted sulphuric acid (by hydrolysis) splits into parasaccharic acid (glucose), C6H10O8, and bitter resinous glycyrrhetin, C32H47NO4.
Fig. 199. - Glycyrrhiza glabra, var. typica (rhizome), natural size.
Fig. 200. - Glycyrrhiza glabra, var. glandu-lifera (root).
Preparations. - 1. Extraction Glycyrrhizae. Extract of Glycyrrhiza. (Syn., Ext. Glycyrrh., Extract of Licorice, Extractum liquiritiae, Licorice; Fr. Suc (jus) de Reglisse, Sucre noir; Ger. Succus liquiritiae, Siissholzsaft, Lakritz, Lakritzensaft.)
Manufacture: Evaporate decoction to proper consistence, pulverize or mold. This is the commercial extract, in flattened, cylindrical masses or rolls, 15-18 Cm. (6-7') long, 15-30 Mm. (3/5-1 1/2') thick, glossy black, brittle, sharp, smooth, conchoidal fracture; characteristic, sweet taste; yield 26-32 p. c, containing glycyrrhizin 10-24 p. c.; at least GO p. c. soluble in cold water; powder brown; ash 6 p. c. Dose, ad libitum.
Preps.: 1. Pilulae Ferri Iodidi, 1/6 gr. (.01 Gm.). 2. Trochisci
Ammonii Chloridi, 3 gr. (.2 Gm.). 3. Trochisci Cubebae, 4 gr.
2. Extractum Glycyrrhizae Purum. Pure Extract of Glycyrrhiza.
(Syn., Ext. Glycyrrh. Pur.; Br. Extractum Glycyrrhizae, Extractum
Glycyrrhizae Depuratum; Fr. Extrait de Reglisse (pur); Ger. Succus
Liquiritiae depuratus, Gereinigter Sussholzsaft.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with water 300 Ml. (Cc.) + ammonia water 15 Ml. (Cc.), proceed with chloroform water until exhausted, evaporate to pilular consistency; yield 16-25 p. c. Dose, ad libitum.
Preps.: 1. Mistura Glycyrrkizae Composita. Compound Mixture of Glycyrrhiza. (Syn., Mist. Glycyrrh. Co., Brown Mixture; Fr. Mixture de Reglisse; Ger. Lakritzenmixtur.)
Manufacture: Rub in a mortar until dissolved pure extract of glycyrrhiza 3 Gm., acacia 3 Gm., with warm water 50 Ml. (Co.), cool, transfer to graduated vessel, add antimony and potassium tartrate .024 Gm., dissolved in water 1.2 Ml. (Cc.), then syrup 5 Ml. (Cc.), camphorated tincture of opium 12 Ml. (Cc.), spirit of nitrous ether 3 Ml. (Cc.), rinse mortar with water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly. Dose, 3j-4 (4-15
Ml. (Cc.)). 2. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 4 p. c.
3. Fluidextractum Glyeyrrhizae. Fluidextract of Glycyrrhiza. (Syn., Fldext. Glycyrrh., Fluid Extract of Glycyrrhiza, Fluidextract of Licorice; Br. Extractum Glycyrrhizae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Reglisse; Ger. Sussholzfluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with chloroform water 270 Ml. (Cc.) + ammonia water 30, proceed with more menstruum until exhausted, reserve first 50 Ml. (Cc.), evaporate remainder to soft extract, which dissolve in the reserve, add water q. s. 75 Ml. (Cc.), and gradually alcohol 25 Ml. (Cc.), let stand 7 days, decant, filter, wash filter with 25 p. c alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Preps.: 1. Flixir Glycyrrhizae. Elixir of Glycyrrhiza. (Syn., Elix. Glycyrrh., Elixir Adjuvans, U. S. P. 1900, Elixir of Licorice, Flavoring Elixir; Fr. Elixir de Reglisse - adjuvant; Ger. Gewurz-haftes Lakritzenelixir.) Manufacture: Mix fluidextract of glycyrrhiza 12.5 Ml. (Cc.) with aromatic elixir 87.5 Ml. (Cc.), filter. Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle. 2. Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus, 1.5 p. c.
4. Glycyrrhizinum Ammoniatum. Ammoniated. Glycyrrhizin. (Syn., Glycyrrh. Ammon.; Fr. Glycyrrhizine Ammoniacale; Ger. Ammoniak Glycyrrhizin.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with water 95 Ml. (Cc.) + ammonia water 5 Ml. (Cc.), proceeding with water alone q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); add sulphuric acid slowly, constantly stirring, wash well the precipitate, redissolve in water by aid of ammonia water, filter, add sulphuric acid so long as precipitate is produced, wash well, dissolve in enough diluted ammonia water, spread on glass to dry. It is in brownish-red scales, odorless, very sweet taste, soluble in water (freely), alcohol. Tests: 1. Heat aqueous solution with potassium hydroxide T. S. - ammonia evolved. 2. Supersaturate aqueous solution with an acid - precipitate (glycyrrhizin), which dissolved in hot water forms a jelly on cooling, that upon being washed with diluted alcohol and dried appears as an amorphous, yellow powder, having a strong, bitter-sweet taste, acid reaction. 3. Incinerate .5 Gm. - ash .5 p. c Dose gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
5. Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus. Compound Powder of Glycyrrhiza. (Syn., Pulv. Glycyrrh. Co., Compound Licorice Powder; Fr. Poudre pectorale de Reglisse composee; Ger. Pulvis Liquiritise compositus (Pectoralis Kurellae), Brustpulver.)
Manufacture: Mix oil of fennel .4 Gm. with sugar 50 Gm., add gly-cyrrhiza 23.6 Gm., senna 18 Gm., washed sulphur 8 Gm.; mix thoroughly, pass through No. 80 sieve. It is greenish-yellow, fennel-like odor; microscopically - fragments of glycyrrhiza with yellow fibres, crystal fibres, large tracheae, starch grains, .002-.02 Mm. (1/12500-1/1250') broad; fragments of senna with non-glandular hairs, epidermis, sto-mata with 2 neighboring cells, crystal fibres; with potassium hydroxide T. S. - yellowish-red, changing to reddish-brown. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.).
6. Massa Hydrargyria 10 p. c. 7. Pilulae Ferri Iodidi, 3/5 gr. (.04 Gm.). 8. Tinctura Aloes, 20 p. c.
Unoff. Preps.: Fluidglycerate, 100 p. c., + ammonia water 6, glycerine, 50, water q. s. Aromatic Elixir, 12.5 p. c. (fldext.), + oils of clove and cinnamon, each .075, oil of myristica .05, oil of fennel .15, purified talc 2, aromatic elixir q. s., dose, 3 j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Aqueous Elixir, 15 p. c. (fldext.). Syrup. - Macerate root (20) in water (100 + ammonia water 10) for 12 hours, boil, filter, evaporate to 10, add alcohol (10), let stand 12 hours, filter, add syrup q. s. 100 parts; or mix fluidextract (2) with syrup (8); or mix fluidglycerate 25, syrup q. s. 100. Dose, ad libitum; mostly for flavoring.
Properties. - Demulcent, expectorant, laxative; locally - slight stimulant. Increases, when chewed, the flow of saliva and mucus, which secretions are emollient to the throat.
Uses. - Febrile catarrhal conditions, bronchitis, bowel and urinary affections; here should be prepared with flaxseed, rice, barley, or gum water. In pharmacy used to mask taste of aloes, ammonium chloride, bitter sulphates, colocynth, guaiacum, hyoscyamus, mezereum, senega, senna, quinine, turpentine, etc. Mechanically as an excipient and dryer in pills, troches, etc.