1. Gossypium Purificatum. Purified Cotton.
2. Oleum Gossypii Seminis. Cottonseed oil.
Linne: one or more cultivated varieties.
1. The hairs of the seed, freed from adhering impurities and linters, and deprived of fatty matter. 2. The fixed oil from the seeds.
Syn. 1. Gossyp. Purif., Absorbent Cotton, Gossypium, Cotton, Cotton Wool; Fr. Coton; Ger. Gossypium depuratum, Gereinigte Baumwolle. 2. 01. Gossyp. Sem., Cotton Seed Oil; Fr. Huile (de Coton) de Semences de Cotonnier; Ger. Baumwollsamenol.
Gos-syp'i-um. L. fr. Ar. Goz, Gothn, a soft, silky substance - i. e., the hairs of the seeds.
Her-ba'ce-um. L. herbaceus, grassy, herby - i. e., the plant habit.
Plant. - Small biennial or triennial shrub; stem branching, 1.5-3 M. (5-10°) high, more or less woody; leaves hoary, palmately 3-5-lobed; flowers large, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long and wide, yellow, purple spot near the claw; fruit capsule or boll 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5 - 2') long, 3-5-celled, opening by as many valves when ripe, revealing loose, white tuft of long, slender hair that surrounds each one of the numerous seeds. Hairs of the Seed, in white, soft, fine filaments, 12-37.5 Mm. (1/2-1 1/2') long; under microscope hollow, flattened, twisted bands, spirally striate, slightly thickened edges; inodorous; almost tasteless; insoluble in ordinary solvents. Tests: 1. Compress in the hand, throw upon cold water - readily absorbs latter and sinks. 2. Incinerate 5 Gm. - ash .2 p. c. Impurities: Alkali, acid, resins, soap, fatty matter. Solvent: Ammonia solution of cupric oxide. Oil of the Seeds, a pale yellow, oily liquid, odorless, nearly odorless, bland taste, slightly soluble in alcohol; miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphide, sp. gr. 0.920; on cooling below 12° C. (54° F.) particles of solid fat separate, and at - 2° C. (28° F.) nearly or quite a solid. Tests: 1. With sulphuric acid, preferably diluted with carbon disulphide - reddish-brown color at once. 2. Mix 2 Ml. (Cc.) with 2 Ml. (Cc.) of a mixture of equal vols, of amyl alcohol and a 1 p. c. solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide, and immerse in boiling saturated solution of sodium chloride - red color in 10-15 minutes. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 Ml. (Cc.)).
Substitutions. - I. Hairs: Boehme'ria ni'vea, fibre may be used for cotton, lint, etc. II. Oil: 1, Brazil or Para Nut Oil; nuts 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 3-edged, brownish-gray kernel, white, almond taste; yield 60 p. c. oil; 2, Oleum Fagi, Beech Oil, from fruit of Fa'gus syl-vat'ica, kernels yield 22 p. c. oil; yellow, sp. gr. 0.922, congeals at - 17.5° C. (0° F.).
Commercial. - Cotton was known to the Arabians, Egyptians, and Chinese in the 10th century, and was carried to Spain by the Moors in the 16th century. The ancient Egyptians possibly were unacquainted with it, as their mummy fibres are all linen, and no seeds or paintings of plants are found in the tombs. However, in Peru mummy clothing from earliest date contain cotton, consequently here may be its original habitat. Many species now give similar products, but our own is thought to be from 0. barbadense, Barbadoes Island, W. Indies. Chapman refers long-staple or Sea Island cotton, which we cultivate, to G.ni'grum, and short-staple or Upland cotton to G. al'bum. The hairs are removed by hand or mill (cotton gin) from the seeds, and owing to the latter containing fixed oil, 15-20 p. c, a portion of it becomes absorbed by the attached fibre and must be eliminated before adapted for general use. Purification is effected by boiling carded cotton in 5 p. c. solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide, washing with water to remove soap, expressing, adding 5 p. c. solution of chlorinated lime, allowing to stand half an hour, washing, expressing, adding acidulated
Fig. 259. - Gossypium herbaceum: a, outside calyx;/, fruit.
Fig. 260. - Gossypium herbaceum: cotton fibre, magnified 250 diam.
(HC1 5 p. c.) water, washing, expressing - a process that may be repeated if necessary, removing 7-10 p. c. of weight, chiefly fat. The oil is obtained by cracking off testa, grinding and expressing kernels; at first it is thick, reddish-brown, turbid from albumin and mucilage, which mostly subside on standing, yielding orange-colored clarified oil; when this is treated with boiling water or superheated steam albuminoids are coagulated, giving lighter-colored refined oil, which upon being bleached (agitated with alkaline solution and heated) yields winter-bleached oil; the loss in refining is 5-10 p. c, and as such is official. It is exported extensively for olive oil adulteration, for which demand a line of tanked steamers ply regularly between New Orleans and Europe, each having a capacity of 500,000-1,000,000 gallons; 12,000-20,000 barrels (1894-3788 Kl).
Constituents. - I. Hairs: Cellulose, inorganics 1.5 p. c, fixed oil 7-10 p. c. II. Oil: Olein, palmitin, linolein, glyceride of linoleic acid, and non-saponifiable yellow coloring matter.
Preparations. - I. Hairs: 1. Pyroxylinum. Pyroxylin. (Syn., Pyroxylin, Soluble Gun Cotton, Colloxylin, Collodion Cotton, Lana Collodii; Fr. Fulmicoton soluble; Ger. Kollodiumwolle.)
Manufacture: Macerate purified cotton in a cooled mixture of 14 vols. of nitric acid and 22 vols. of sulphuric acid until the cotton is soluble in a mixture of 1 vol. of alcohol and 3 vols. of ether, remove adhering acid by washing first with cold, then boiling water, dry in small portions at 60° C. (140° F.). It is a yellowish-white matted mass of filaments, resembling raw cotton in appearance, harsh to the touch, exceedingly inflammable, burning, when unconfined, very rapidly with luminous flame, less explosive than cellulose hexanitrate; kept in well-closed bottles exposed to light; decomposes with evolution of nitrous vapors, and carbonaceous residue; consists chiefly of cellulose tetranitrate, C12H16(ONO2)4O6. Tests: 1. Soluble slowly but completely in 25 parts of a mixture of 1 vol. of alcohol and 3 vols. of ether; soluble in acetone, glacial acetic acid, and precipitated from these solutions on the addition of water. 2. Saturate .5 Gm. with alcohol in a dish in cold water, ignite from top; when combustion complete, heat dish to redness - ash .3 p. c. Impurities: Soluble substances. Should be kept dark, dry, in cartons packed loosely.
Prep.: 1. Collodium. Collodion. (Syn., Collod.; Fr. Collodion;
Ger. Collodium, Kollodium.) Manufacture: Add alcohol 25 Ml. (Cc.) to pyroxylin 4 Gm., shake, add ether 75 Ml. (Cc), shake until dissolved; cork well, set aside until clear, decant from any sediment. It is a clear, slightly opalescent, syrupy liquid; colorless, slightly yellowish; odor of ether; highly inflammable, and when exposed in thin layer leaves a transparent, tenacious film; sp. gr. 0.770; mixed with equal volume of distilled water a viscid, stringy mass separates; aqueous liquid not acid. Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.
Prep.: 1. Collodium Flexile. Flexible Collodion. (Syn., Collod. Flex.; Fr. Collodion elastique; Ger. Collodium elasti-cum, Elastisches Kollodium.) Manufacture: Shake in a tared bottle collodion 95 Gm., castor oil 3 Gm., camphor 2 Gm., until latter dissolved. Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.
Prep.: 1. Collodium Cantharidatum. Cantharidal Collodion. (Syn., Collod. Canth., Blistering Collodion, Vesicating Collodion; Br. Collodium Vesicans; Fr. Collodion (vesicant) cantharide - cantharidal; Ger. Spanischfliegen Kollodium.) Manufacture: Macerate, for 24 hours in covered container, cantharides 60 Gm., acetone 55 Ml. (Cc.), glacial acetic acid 5 Ml. (Cc.); percolate with acetone until exhausted; distil percolate down to 15 Gm., which, when cold, dissolve in flexible collodion 85 Gm., let stand until clear, decant from any sediment. Should be kept cool, remote from' fire, in well-closed containers.
II. Oil: 1. Sapo Mollis. Soft Soap. (Syn., Sapo Moll., Sapo Viridis, Green Soap; Fr. Savon(mou)vert; Ger. Sapo kalinus, Kali-seife, Grune seife.)
Manufacture: Heat until dissolved potassium hydroxide 86 Gm. in water 100 Ml. (Cc.), add cottonseed oil 430 Gm., stir, bring to boil (until froth appears), add alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.), stir actively until froth suddenly rises, withdraw heat, stir until paste, and if saponification be complete (otherwise add more potassium hydroxide or cottonseed oil and heat until it is so), add water q. s. 1000 Gm., warm gently, stirring carefully, until water all absorbed and clear soap results. It is a soft, unctuous, yellowish-white, brownish-yellow mass, slight characteristic odor, alkaline taste; aqueous solution alkaline; solution in hot distilled water (1 in 20) nearly clear.
Prep.: 1. Linimentum Saponis Mollis. Liniment of Soft Soap. (Syn., Lin. Sapon. Moll., Tincture of Green Soap, Spiritus Saponis Kalinus Hebra; Fr. Teinture de Savon vert; Ger. Hebra's Seifenspiritus.) Manufacture: 65 p. c. Mix oil of lavender 2 Ml. (Cc.) with alcohol 30 Ml. (Cc.), add soft soap 65 Gm., stir or agitate until dissolved, set aside 24 hours, filter, add alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); used externally. 2. Linimentum Camphoroe, 80 p. c
Unoff. Preps.: I. Hairs: Gossypium Stypticum - macerate 100 Gm. for 1 hour in solution of ferric chloride 80 Ml. (Cc), glycerin 16, water 225, press until it weighs 300 Gm., dry, keep in well-closed containers. Medicated Cottons (salicylated, borated, benzoinated, chlorinated, phe-nolated (carbolated), iodoform, mercuric (bi)chloride, haemostatic, etc.). Collodium Stypticum (dissolve tannic acid 20 Gm. in flexible collodion 80 Gm.; Iodine Collodion, 5 p. c; Iodoform Collodion, 5 p. c; Compound Salicylic Collodion, salicylic acid 11 Gm., fldext. of cannabis 10, flexible collodion q. s. 100; Croton Oil Collodion, 10 p. c). II. Seed: Cottonseed Tea (mucilaginous drink for dysentery, diarrhoea, etc.). Properties. - I. Hairs: Protective. II. Oil: Demulcent, nutrient. Uses. - I. Hairs: Dressing in burns, scalds, erysipelas, blisters, surgical wounds; prevents entrance of organic germs that cause suppuration and septic disease. Cotton batting maintains local heat in pneumonia, rheumatism, and may be made into pessaries. II. Oil: Like olive and almond oils in pharmacy, liniments, etc.; in culinary use for lard; to adulterate olive oil, in preparing woollen cloth, morocco leather, lubricating machinery, etc. Derivative Product: