Eupato'Rium Perfolia'Tum, Boneset, Thorovghwort. The dried leaves and flowering tops, official 1820-1910; X. America, swamps, meadows, banks. Hairy perennial, .6-1.2 M. (2-4°) high, branched at summit. Leaves opposite, the pairs united at the base, 8-20 Cm. (3-8/) long, 1.5-5 Cm. (3/5-2') broad, tapering from base to apex, crenate-serrate, rugosely veined, rough and bright green above, yellowish-gray-green, tomentose, resinous-dotted beneath; flower-heads small, numerous, corymbed, with campanulate involucre of lance-linear imbricated scales, flowers 10-15 tubular yellowish-white florets with bristly pappus in a single row; odor faintly aromatic; taste strongly bitter, astringent; solvents: diluted alcohol, water partially; contains eupatorin, volatile oil, resin, tannin, wax, gum, sugar, yellow coloring matter, ash 7.5 p. c. Stimulant, tonic, diaphoretic (diuretic); large doses emetic, aperient, antiperiodic, similar to chamomile; intermittent fever, rheumatism, influenza, bronchitis. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); fluidextract (dil. alc), exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)) - when cold tonic, when warm emetic, diaphoretic.
3. E. purpu'reum, Gravel Root, Queen of the Meadow. - The root, official 1820-1840; N. America. Perennial herb 1-2 M. (3-6°) high, stem green or purplish, purple band at joints, 2.5 Cm. (1') wide, leaves petiolate, 3-6 in whorl, 20-25 Cm. (8-10') long, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide, downy beneath, flowers purple to white, corymbs, dry woods, meadows; contains euparin; taste bitter, aromatic; astringent. E. verbenoefo'lium (teucrifo'linm), Wild Hoarhound, Rough Boneset; the herb, official 1820-1840. Perennial hairy herb .6-2.5 M. (2-8°) high; low grounds; leaves ovate, oblong, truncate at base, toothed; flowers Aug., white, panicled corymb, considered by some only a variety of E. perfoliatum, all three possessing similar properties. E. capillifo'lium (foenicula'ceum), Dog-fennel, Hog-weed; Virginia to Florida. Plant smooth, 1-3 M. (3-10°) high; juice relieves pain from insect-bites.
Solida'Go Odo'Ra, Sweet Or Anise-Scented Golden-Rod. The leaves and tops, official 1820-1880; N. America. Perennial herb, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, greenish-yellow, pubescent; leaves lanceolate, pellucid-dotted, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-20 long, 12 Mm. (J') wide; flowers yellow, racemes; fruit achenes; odor and taste sweet, anise-like, more pronounced when bruised; contains volatile oil. Used for stimulant, rubefacient, anodyne, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic; hemorrhages, colic, neuralgia, amenorrhoea, rheumatism; infusion, oil. Dose, 5ss-2 (2-8 Gm.); oil, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
Erig'Eron Canadensis, Canada Fleabane, Horseweed, Fireweed. The herb, official 1820-1880; the volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering herb, official 1880-1910; N. America, fields, waste places; naturalized in other countries. Annual herb, .3-2.5 M. (1-8°) high; stem branching, hairy, furrowed; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, dentate; flowers small, numerous, white, terminal panicles; contains volatile oil .2-4 p. c, bitter principle (amaroid), tannin, gallic acid. Oil is a pale yellow liquid, darker and thicker with age and exposure; odor peculiar, aromatic, persistent; taste aromatic, pungent, sp. gr. 0.850; contains d-limonene, C10H16, terpineol, a substance easily decomposed or polymerized by heat making distillation difficult at ordinary pressure. Test: 1. Soluble in equal volume of alcohol (dist. from oil of fireweed, Erechthi'tes hieracifo'lia, and oil of turpentine), also in equal volume of glacial acetic acid, which solution with bromine yields crystals of C10H16Br4. Stimulant, tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, styptic; diarrhoea, dysentery, gravel, dropsy, hemorrhages of uterus and bowels; similar to oil of turpentine, but less irritating and stimulating. First employed by the "Eclectics." Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); decoction, 5 p. c, ℥ss-1 (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)); oil, ev-10 (.3-.6 Ml. (Cc.)). E. an'nuus (heterophyl'lus), Various-leaved Fleabane, Sweet Scabious; the herb, official 1830-1880. Biennial herb, 1-1.5 M. (3-5°) high, branched, hairy, leaves sharply, coarsely toothed; flowers Aug., corymbs, rays white tinged with purple, disk yellow; in fields, waste places. E. philadel'phicus, Philadelphia Fleabane; the herb, official 1820-1880. Perennial herb, .3-1 M. (1-3°) high, pubescent, slender, leafy; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') wide, midrib broad, flowers June-Aug., numerous, panicled corymbs, rays 150-200, filiform purplish, disk yellow. Both have same constituents and properties as E. canadensis.