Gnapha'Lium Obtusifo'Lium (Polyceph'Alum), Common, Sweet, Or Fragrant Life Everlasting. Annual erect herb, .3-1 M. (1-3°) high, woolly, fragrant; leaves lanceolate, undulate, sessile, flowers in heads, clustered at summit of corymbose branches, obovate, whitish involucre, yellow, tubular, odor pleasant, bitter; contains volatile oil and bitter principle. Used for diarrhoea, hemorrhages, externally in fomentation and as a vulnerary to bruises, ulcers, etc. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).
In'Ula Hele'Nium, Inula, Elecampane. The root, official 1820-1900; C. and S. Europe, C. Asia. Perennial herb, 1-2 M. (3-6°) high; stem thick, solid, striate, villous; leaves large, .3-.5 M. (10 - 18') long, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') wide, ovate, serrate, pubescent beneath, long-petioled, fleshy midrib; flowers large, 6 Cm. (2 2/5') wide, single, golden-yellow. Root, dug in autumn of the second year, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') thick; usually in transverse, concave slices or longitudinal sections, with overlapping bark, wrinkled, brownish, fracture short, radiate,, dotted, with resin-cells, free from starch; odor peculiar, aromatic; taste bitter, pungent; contains volatile oil, acrid resin, bitter principle, inulin, helenin, wax; solvents: alcohol, water partially. Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue, tonic; lung diseases, bronchitis, vesical catarrh, amenorrhoea, dyspepsia, skin affections, dropsy, whooping-cough, diphtheria. Dose, 3ss-l (2/4 Gm.); decoction, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); fluidextract, 5ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-00 Ml. (Cc.)). I. squar-ro'sa; S. Europe. Leaves tomentose, rugose, ray-florets 3-cleft, tubular; emmenagogue, diuretic, powder burned to repel insects.
8. Pulica'ria (Inula) dysenter'ica, Fleawort; used like the preceding. Carli'na acau'lis, Europe; contains volatile oil, resin, similar to elecampane in odor, etc.; diaphoretic, diuretic, large doses purgative, typhoid condition, impotence, amenorrhoea, paralysis of the tongue. Dose, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.).
Calen'Dula Officinalis, Marigold. The dried ligulate florets, official 1880-1910; S. Europe, Levant, cult, as ornament. Annual herb, .3-6 M. (1-2°) high, angular, roughish-hairy; leaves toothed, oblanceolate; flower-heads terminal, 5 Cm. (2') broad, involucre flattish, hemispherical, 2-rowed; disk-florets many, tubular, 5-cleft, yellow. Ligulate (ray)-florets, one or several rows, 15-25 Mm. (3/5-1') long, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, yellowish, 1-3-toothed, the short hairy tube occasionally enclosing remnants of a filiform style and bifid stigma, without pappus; odor slight, somewhat heavy; taste slightly bitter, faintly saline; solvents: alcohol, boiling
Fig. 416. - Inula Helenium.
Fig. 417. - Inula: transverse section, natural size.
water partially; contains volatile oil, bitter principle, calendulin (analogous to bassorin), fat, resin, sugar, gum. Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic, resolvent; jaundice, amenorrhoea, scrofula, low fevers, vomiting; cancer, ulcers, wounds, otitis. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol); tincture, 20 p. c. (alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)) - Homeopathic remedy instead of tincture of arnica or myrrh. 10. Brauner'ia pal'lida, Echinacea, Pale purple Cone-flower, C. and S. United States. - Perennial herb, stem simple, naked above, single large head, leaves alternate, 3-5-nerved. Dried rhizome and roots - cylindrical, 10-20 Cm. (4-80 long, 4-13 Mm. (1/6-1/2') thick, nearly entire, brownish, annulate, V-shaped stem scars, wrinkled, fracture short, fibrous; bark about 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, rhizome with circular pith; odor faint, aromatic taste sweetish, tingling, like aconite, without benumbing; contains acrid resin (activity) 1 p. c, alkaloid. Diaphoretic, sialagogue, alterative; syphilitic and strumous conditions, chronic ulcers; Sioux Indians used fresh scraped root for hydrophobia, snake-bites, septicemia. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).