The carefully dried strobiles, bearing their glandular trichomes, with not more than 2 p. c. of stems, leaves, foreign matter.
Habitat. N. Temperate zone, in hedges, thickets; cultivated in N. America (New England, N. Y., Mich.), Europe (England, Germany), C. Asia, Brazil, Australia.
Syn. Humul., Lupulus, Strobili (Humuli) Lupuli, Hop, Hop Vine, Bine, Bur, Seeder; Fr. Houblon; Ger. Hopfen.
Hu'mu-lus. L. humus, the ground - i. e., the plant creeps on the ground unless supported.
Lu'pu-lus. L. dim. of lupus, a wolf - i. e., it is wolfish, because it strangles the shrubbery upon which it climbs.
Hops, OE. hoppen, to climb - i. e., plant leaps or hops from one place or support to another.
Plant. - Perennial, herbaceous twiner; root large, thick, branched; stems several, 6 M. (20°) long, striated, angular, rough, flexible, entwining left to right; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, cordate, 3-5-pal-mate-lobed, petiolate, scabrous with minute prickles, stipulate, dark green; flowers July-August, dioecious, axillary, the staminate yellowish-white racemes, pistillate densely leafy, pale green, cone-like spikes which produce the fruit (strobile). Strobiles, ovoid-cylindrical, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') long, consisting of narrow, hairy, flexuous rachis and, numerous, imbricated, yellowish-green, pale brown, obliquely-ovate, membranous scales, the base of each with numerous, yellowish-brown glandular hairs, frequently infolded on one side, enclosing a sub-globular, light brown, very glandular achene; odor strong, characteristic, becoming disagreeable, valerian-like on aging; taste aromatic, bitter. Should be kept dark, in tightly-closed containers, and not used after a year old. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).
Commercial: Hops ripen in September, being picked, dried carefully in kilns, not exceeding 70° C. (158° F.), packed in hempen bales or bags, and sent into market. If of good color and aroma are sold usually in bulk for brewing and the drug trade, while those deficient in lupulin (by abrasion, shaking), of off-color (brown by age and exposure), or of rankish odor (valeric acid), hence inferior, are compressed tightly into varying-sized rectangular cakes; or they may be bleached by sulphur dioxide, thereby retarding oxidation, and bartered loosely; or may be sprinkled with alcohol before pressing (developing
Fig. 89. - Humulus Lupulus: a, staminate flower; b, pistillate flower; c, sepal; d, bract; e, embryo;f, lupulinic gland (lupulin).
special odors and preventing that of valeric acid) when they should be aired at least a month prior to use in medicine or beer. Manufacturers of the beverages will not accept such knowingly, but this seems without valid reason.
Constituents. - Volatile oil .8 p. c, Choline (lupuline), resin (3) 9-18 p. c, trimethylamine, asparagin 1 p. c., tannin (lupulo- or humulo-tannic acid), C25H24O13, 4 p. c., phlobaphene (decomposition product from the tannin; dark red, with acids yielding glucose and hop-red), C50H46O25, wax, pectin, diastase (?), sugar, phosphates, nitrates, malates, citrates, ash 7-10 p. c. (K,Ca,Si,+).
Volatile Oil. - Obtained by distillation; brownish, aromatic, non-bitter; contains chiefly sesquiterpene (humulene), also some terpene; sp. gr. 0.865, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, oxidizing into valeric acid.
Choline. - Possibly from decomposition of lecithin; volatile liquid alkaloid with coniine-like odor, alkaline, non-bitter, upon boiling yields trimethylamine.
Preparations. - (Unoff.): Elixir, 12.5 p. c. (fldext.). Extract, dose, gr. 3-10 (.2-.6 Gm.). Fluidextract (60 p. c. alcohol), dose, xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusum Lupuli, 5 p. c, dose, ℥j (30-120 Ml. (Cc.)). Tincture, 20 p. c. (dil. alc.), dose, 3 j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Poultice.
Properties. - Tonic, sedative, anodyne, hypnotic. Somewhat diaphoretic, astringent, anaphrodisiac, diuretic, stomachic, carminative. Increases heart action, skin circulation; after slight cerebral excitement have calm, soporific effect. Tonic property due to bitter principle - lupamaric (lupulinic) acid; stimulant then sedative, due to volatile oil. Aromatic and bitter virtues reside mostly in the glands (lupulin).
Uses. - Dyspepsia, delirium tremens, priapism, seminal emissions, incontinence of urine, irritable bladder. Externally - rheumatism, abscesses, spasms, colic, toothache, bruises; for these, use poultice made by moistening hops with hot water, vinegar, alcohol or laudanum, enclosing in porous cloth and applying while hot to painful part. Tincture with tincture of capsicum good following a debauch as a substitute for alcoholic drinks.
1. Lupulinum, Lupulin. The glandular trichomes separated from the fruit of Humulus Lupulus, official 1830-1910. Obtained by handling, thrashing dried strobiles, or picking off scales, shaking and rubbing glands through fine sieve; yield 8-16 p. c. It is in minute granules, bright brownish-yellow mass, becoming yellowish-brown and resinous, inflammable; under microscope globular, ellipsoidal, .1-3 Mm. (1/250-1/80') broad, reticulate, multicellular; odor and taste characteristic of hops. Tests: 1. Agitate with water - no sediment on standing (abs. of sand, etc.). 2. Incinerate - ash 7-10 p. c. 3. Ether dissolves 60 p. c, which solution evaporated gives soft extract with hop odor; solvents: acetone, alcohol, ether, boiling water; contains choline (lupuline), volatile oil 3 p. c, lupamaric acid (hop-bitter), C25H35O4, resin, wax (myricin), valeric acid (?). Stimulant, tonic, anodyne; similar to hops, but stronger, more reliable and sometimes preferable. Should be kept dry in well-closed bottles. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); extract, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol), v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)); oleoresin (acetone, ether), gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); tincture, 12 p. c. (alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)); ammoniated tincture, 10 p.c. (ar. spts. ammonia), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)); pills (excipient - little ether, gentle heat or brisk rubbing with spatula). 11
Fig. 90. - Lupulin (fresh).