Helleb'Orus Ni'Ger, Black Hellebore. The dried rhizome and roots, official 1820-1880; C. and S. Europe, mountains. Acaulescent perennial, leaves evergreen, 7-9-lobed, flowers rose-like. Rhizome knotty, 13
5 Cm. (2') long, 12 Mm. (J') thick, blackish, bark thick, wood-wedges 8, medullary rays broad, taste sweet, bitter, usually from Germany; contains helleborin, helleborein, helleboretin, resin, volatile oil, fixed oil, gum, etc. Heart stimulant, drastic hydragogue cathartic, alterative; used for melancholia, mania, dropsy, amenorrhoea, epilepsy, skin troubles; in decoction, infusion, tincture, extract. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).
2. H.foe'tidus, Bear's Foot. - The leaves, official 1820-1840; Europe. Perennial herb - the most energetic of the genus. Used for asthma, hysteria, hypochondriasis, taenia; in powder, decoction, syrup. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.). H. vir'idis, Green Hellebore. The rhizome (root), United States, Europe; rhizome about the same as H. niger, but has only 4 wood-wedges, and is smaller.
Ado'Nis Verna'Lis, False Hellebore. N. Europe, Asia. Plant 25 Cm. (10') high, leaves light green, pinnatifid, flowers yellow; contains chiefly adonidin (adonin), an intensely bitter, yellow, hygroscopic glucoside, soluble in water, alcohol. Cardiac stimulant, mild diuretic; resembles digitalis, but is more prompt, non-cumulative; mitral and aortic regurgitation, precordial pain, dyspnoea. Dose, gr. 1-2 (.06-.13 Gm.); fluidextract (75 p. c. alcohol); adonidin, gr. 1/16-1/3 (.004-.02 Gm.).
Coy'Lis Trifo'Lia, Gold Thread. The rhizome (root), official 1820-1880, N. America. Plant with scape 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') high, leaves radical, 3-foliate, flowers May, whitish. Rhizome golden-yellow, filiform, fruit 7 follicles with black seeds, inodorous, bitter; contains berberine, coptine (white, possibly identical with hydrastine), resin. Used for ulcerated mouth; in infusion, decoction, fluidextract (dil. alc.), tincture (10 p. c.). Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
Xauthorrhi'Za Apiifo'Lia, Shrub Yellow-Root. The rhizome and roots, official 1820-1880; S. and C. United States. Shrub .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, stem clustered, 6 Mm. (J') thick, wood yellow, leaves compound, flowers April, purple, racemes, rhizome .6-1 M. (2-3°) long, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, yellowish internally and externally, bitter; contains berberine, resin, starch, gum, etc. Used as a tonic like calumba or quassia; in infusion, decoction, tincture. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).