(Metamorphosis) .

1. Restoratives (L. restaurare, to restore). - These restore or renew strength or vitality: (a) Foods, Aliments - which maintain some vital process, or renew some structural material, while medicines can modify only some vital action. They are derived from the vegetable, animal, and mineral kingdoms, and in nature are recognized as being either: oxidizable - heat-producing and force-forming: carbon compounds, fat, sugar, starch, gum, etc.; nitrogenous - flesh-forming: albumin, casein, fibrin, etc.; unoxidizable or incombustible: metallic salts, water, etc.; (6) Digestive ferments - which are animal and vegetable substances for aiding digestion when the normal alimentary secretions are inefficient: pepsin, pancreatin, papain, diastase, ingluvin, etc.; (c) Digestive acids - which check the production of glands having acid secretions, but increase those having alkaline secretions: diluted hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, nitro-hydrochloric, lactic, phosphoric, etc.; (d) Fats and fatty oils - which form the molecular basis of the chyle, are indeed necessary for the digestion of nitrogenous food, and by oxidation become the chief producers of vital force and heat: cod-liver, cottonseed, linseed, olive, sweet almond, theobroma; (e) Haematics (Gr.

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of the blood) - which increase the amount of haema-tin in the blood, improving its quality by enriching the red corpuscles: salts of iron, manganese, chalybeate waters, etc.; (f) Tonics (Gr.

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tone) - which improve the tone of specific tissues, restoring energy and strength to the entire debilitated system, by imperceptibly stimulating vital functions. (1) Mineral: phosphorus, phosphates, phosphites, bismuth, arsenic, etc. (2) Vegetable: (a) Simple Stomachic Bitters, containing a bitter principle: gentian, calumba, quassia, chirata, calendula; (b) Aromatic Bitters, containing a volatile oil, bitter principle, resin, tannin: serpentaria, wild cherry, eupatorium, anthemis, matricaria.

2. Antiperiodics (L. anti, opposed to, + periodicus, periodic, period). - These prevent recurrence of or modify certain periodic febrile diseases by arresting further development in the blood of successive crops of pathogenic organisms causing the disorder: cinchona alkaloids, eucalyptus, salicin, arsenic, etc.

3. Antipyretics, Febrifuges (Gr.

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against, +

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fever; L.

febris, fever, + fugare, to put to flight). - These reduce abnormally high body-temperature, either by decreasing heat-production, or increasing heat-loss; the former condition being effected by (1) lessening tissue-change, (2) reducing circulation; the latter by (1) dilating the skin-vessels, thereby increasing radiation, (2) causing perspiration and its evaporation, (3) abstracting body-heat, through cold applications: cinchona alkaloids, acetanilid, antipyrine, phenacetin, salol, phenol, creosote, aconite, veratrum viride, cold bath, pack, or sponging, purgation, venesection.

4. . Antiphlogistics (Gr.

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against, +

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burning). - These reduce inflammation of serous membranes: mercury, opium, etc.; respiratory tract and organs: aconite, tartar emetic, etc.; and puerperal metritis; veratrum viride, ergot, cold, purgation, etc.