I. Fatty Series (Paraffin Or Methane). Part 2
It is a colorless, light, refractive, mobile, heavy liquid, very volatile, sweet warm taste, chloroform-like odor, sp. gr. 1.445 - 1.450, boils at 39° C. (102° F.), miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, and oils, but not with water. Should be kept in the dark and in well-stoppered flasks, inasmuch as air and light decompose it into hydrobromic acid and bromine.
Properties and Uses. - Anaesthetic. It is rapid, transient, abolishing pain without loss of consciousness, depresses respiration, but is attended, as a rule, with no bad effects, as is chloroform. A few whiffs are generally sufficient to cause anaesthesia, which lasts sufficiently long for all minor surgical operations, as opening abscesses, boils, in dentistry, etc. In administering, hold the towel close to the mouth to prevent admission of air, and put the full quantity thereupon at once, which should be 3ij-6 (8-24 Ml. (Cc.)). With most anaesthetics the converse is the case. Administer on empty stomach, only one minute, do not reapply, and never use when lesions of heart, kidneys, or lungs are present.
Ethylene Bromide. AEthylenum Bromatum. - Brom-ethylene
Manufacture: The unsaturated hydrocarbon ethylene (C2H4) is passed into bromine until saturation is effected - C2H4+Br2=C2H4Br2. It is a colorless, strongly refracting liquid, sweet taste, chloroformic odor, sp. gr. 2.170, boils at 132° C. (269° P.). Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc.))-Properties and Uses. - In epilepsy; should not be confounded with ethyl bromide, owing to its more poisonous properties.
2. Oxygen Derivatives.
Methyl Alcohol. Alcohol Methylicum. - (Syn., Methyl Hydroxide, Wood Naphtha or Spirit, Pyroligneous Spirit or Alcohol; Fr. Alcool (Esprit) de Bois.)
Manufacture: The aqueous portion of the distillate from the destructive distillation of wood contains 1 p. c, along with acetic acid, acetone, aldehyde, allyl alcohol, oils, etc.; this lighter portion is saturated with chalk, CaCO3 (forming calcium acetate), then distilled, and all that comes over under 100° C. (212° F.) is crude wood spirit, which has to be rectified again over CaCl2 and CaO. It is a thin, colorless liquid, peculiar odor, burning taste, sp. gr. 0.802. A purified product, having less odor, under the name of Columbian Spirit is used largely in making external remedies and those from which it is reclaimed during manufacture.
Properties and Uses. - Mostly in the arts as a substitute for (ethyl) alcohol to dissolve resins, volatile oils, alkaloids, etc.
Methylated Spirit consists of ethyl alcohol 90 p. c. + methyl alcohol 10 p. c. This is used abroad as an alcoholic solvent, owing to its being free from internal revenue tax; very poisonous.
Ethyl Alcohol. Alcohol, C2H5OH. (Official.) See page 816
Denatured Alcohol. Alcohol Denaturatum. - Ger. Denaturirter Spiritus.
Manufacture: 1. Mix alcohol (180° proof) 100 gallons, methyl alcohol 10 gallons, benzin .5 gallon. 2. Mix alcohol (180° proof) 100 gallons, methyl alcohol 2 gallons, pyridine bases .5 gallon. It is a transparent, colorless, mobile, volatile liquid, characteristic burning taste, odor varying as to denaturants used. As thus made it is unfit for use in many industries, consequently the Internal Revenue Department has authorized other formulas (13) to serve special purposes, all, however, rendering the final product unsuitable for a beverage or an internal medicine, so as to be withdrawn from bond tax-free. All denaturants - methyl alcohol, benzin, pyridine bases, camphor, lye, castor oil, etc. - must conform to the Government specifications.
Properties and Uses. - Poisonous; only to be used externally as fuel, light, power, solvent in arts, etc.; shellac varnishes, photographic collodion and dry plates, lacquers from soluble cotton, resin podophyllum, acetic ether, ethyl chloride, embalming fluid, heliotropin, chewing and smoking tobacco, ether for anaesthesia, sulphomethane, fulminate of mercury, photo-engravings, transparent soap, barometers, thermometers, watches, purification of rubber, imitation leather, etc.
Amylene Hydrate. Di-methyl-ethyl-carbinol. - Tertiary Amyl Alcohol.
Manufacture: Impure amylene is treated with H2SO4, which forms amyl sulphuric acid; this is diluted, filtered, neutralized with milk of lime or liquor sodii hydroxide, and then fractionally distilled. It is a clear, oily liquid of a peculiar penetrating odor resembling that of a mixture of camphor and peppermint, burning taste, sp. gr. 0.815, boils at 102.5° C. (216.5° P.), dissolves in water (8), miscible in all proportions with alcohol, chloroform, ether, benzin, fixed oils, and glycerin; yields acetic acid on oxidation. Dose, exv-45 (1-3 Ml. (Cc.)). May disagree with stomach, then give hypodermically.
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic, anodyne. Has a power midway between hydrated chloral and paraldehyde. May be given in wine, fruit, syrup, or water.
Solution of Formaldehyde. Liquor Formaldehydi, CH2O. (Official.) See page 822.
Hexamethylenamine. Hexamethylenamina. Urotropine, C6H12N4. - (Official.) See page 823.
Tannoform. Methylene Ditannin, (C14H9O9)2CH2.
Manufacture: Dissolve tannin 5 Gm., in hot water 15 Kg., add 30 p. c. formaldehyde 3 Kg., precipitate with hydrochloric acid 15 Kg., wash precipitate There are several tannoforms, each differing only in the purified plant extract used containing the tannin. Tannoform is a light, pinkish-white powder, soluble in alcohol. Enteritis, diarrhoea, bedsores, fetor of feet and sweat, chancres, eczema, pruritus vaginae. Dose, gr. 1/2-l (.03-.06 Gm.).