Tannalbin. Albuminis Tannas (tannic acid + albumin) and Tan-nopin, Tannori (tannic acid + hexamethylenamine), being only soluble in the duodenum (decomposed by alkalies), are valuable astringents in infantile diarrhoea, tuberculous enteritis, intestinal catarrh, etc. Dose, the former, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); the latter, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.), ter die.
Paraldehyde. Paraldehydum, C6H12O3. (Official.) See page 823.
Hydrated Chloral. Chloralum Hydratum, C2HC13O,H2O. (Official.) See page 824.
Butyl-Chloral Hydrate. Butyl-Chloral Hydras. - Chloral Buty-licum, Croton-Chloral Hydrate (misnomer), Tri-chlor-butylaldehyde Hydrate.
Manufacture: Pass dry chlorine gas through (acetic) aldehyde, when butyl-chloral, C4H5Cl3O, is formed, which being an oil is separated by fractional distillation; this then will unite with water to form a solid hydrate, and from this solution butyl-chloral hydrate crystallizes in white scales with a peculiar pungent, fruit-like odor, warm, bitter, nauseous taste; it is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, hot water, and glycerin, slightly in cold water, melts at 78° C. (172° F.). Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), in pills, syrup. It is well to give gr. 3-5 (.2-3 Gm.) every 2 hours until pain is relieved or sleep produced.
Incompatibles: All alkalies.
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic. Similar to hydrated chloral, but less certain, and by some claimed to be not so depressant to the heart. Good in facial neuralgia, migraine, headache, nausea, neuralgia - due to decayed teeth.
Choralformamide. Choralformamidum. - Chloralamide.
Manufacture: By direct union of anhydrous chloral (147) with formamide (45) at ordinary temperature, purifying resulting solid by crystallization from water or 30 p. c. alcohol. It is in shining, colorless, odorless, slightly bitter crystals, soluble in ether, glycerin, acetone, acetic ether, water (18.7), alcohol (1.3), hydrolized at 60° C. (140° F.) into components - hydrated chloral + formamide (ammonium formate), melts at 115° C. (239° F.), decomposed at higher temperature, and by warming with alkali hydroxides with separation of chloroform, not affected by diluted acids. Impurities: Chloral alcoholate, ethyl carbamate, formic, hydrochloric and other free acids, decomposition products, inorganic substances; should be kept in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, gr. 10-40 (.6-2.6 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic; resembles hydrated chloral but without harmful after-effects; neither tolerance nor habit from long usage; does not relieve pain; painless insomnia, hysteria, asthma, rheumatism, spinal diseases, heart affections, chorea; owing to insolubility, absorption and effect are slow, consequently it should be dissolved in alcohol, brandy, or aromatic sulphuric acid. One of the best preventives of sea-sickness, when a cathartic just before, and gr. 30 (2 Gm.) each of this and potassium bromide on an empty stomach after going aboard ship, and a rest in bed usually affords comparative relief.
Chloralose. Anhydro-gluco-chloral, C8H11Cl3O6.
Manufacture: Heat together equal quantities of anhydrous chloral and glucose at 100° C. (212° F.) for at least an hour, treat the cooled mass with a little water, then boil with ether, distil the ether-soluble portion with water to remove chloral, then let crystallize; yield about 3 p. c. It occurs in small colorless crystals, bitter, disagreeable taste, soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic acid, hot water, and slightly in cold water; melts at 185° C. (365° F.). Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic; free from cumulative and cardiac after-effects. Causes profound sleep, in which sensibility is not lost; owing to its great bitterness should be given in capsules or cachets. Its poisonous effect resembles very much that of hydrated chloral.
Acetone. Acetonum, (CH3)2CO. - (Official.) See page 833.
Acetozone. Benzoylacetyl Peroxide, (C6H5CO.COCH3)O2.
Manufacture: By oxidizing mixture of benzaldehyde and acetic anhydride. Occurs in white shining crystals, melting at 37 ° C. (98° F.), soluble in water (1: 1000 - 10,000, according to temperature), oil (35), slightly in alcohol, ether, chloroform. Commercial acetozone contains equal weight of an inert absorbent, and even then, owing to irritating stomach, should only be given in solutions, which, except oily, gradually decompose, especially when heated or alkali added.
Properties and Uses. - Aqueous solution oxidizing agent, similar to hydrogen dioxide, antiseptic, germicide; diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid (lessening tympanites, diarrhoea, odor, nervousness, temperature), tonsillitis, urethritis, abscesses, gangrene, corneal ulcers, etc. Dose, gr. 15 (1 Gm.) dissolved in warm water, 4 pints (2000 Ml. (Cc.)) - entire or half within 24 hours. Inhalant consists of acetozone (2), chloretone (1), liquid petrolatum 197.
3. Sulphur Derivatives.
Sulphonmethane. Sulphomethanum. Sulphonal, (CH3)2C(C2H5-SO2)2 - (Official.) See page 834.
Sulphonethylmethane. Sulphonethylmethanum. Trional, CH3-CH3SO2C2H5. - (Official.) See page 834.
Tetronal Tetronalum. - Diethyl-sulphon-diethyl-methane.
Manufacture: Like sulphonal, except that start with diethyl-ketone instead of acetone. It is in colorless, odorless, shining plates or laminae, soluble in alcohol, ether, hot water, and cold water (450); melts at 89° C. (192° F.). Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. Hypnotic. Similar to, but much less used than sulphonal and trional.