The three last compounds or sulphones depend upon the ethyl groups for hypnotic effects, the greater their number the more powerful the action.

IV. Acids.

Acetic Acid. - Acidum Aceticum, C2H4O2. - (Official.) See page 835.

Trichloracetic Acid. Acidum Trichloraceticum, HC2Cl3O2. - (Official.) See page 837.

Lactic Acid. Acidum Lacticum, C3H6O3. - (Official.) See page 842.

V. Ethers. Methylal. - Methylene-dimethyl Ether.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1043

Manufacture: Distil together methyl alcohol, sulphuric acid, and manganese dioxide, by which process the methyl alcohol is oxidized; caustic potash may be added to the distillate to separate the methyl formate. This is a mobile, colorless, volatile liquid, odor like chloroform and acetic ether, burning, aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol, ether, oils, and water (3), sp. gr. 0.855, boils at 42° C. (107.6° P.). Dose, exxx-90 (2-6 Ml. (Cc.)), in emulsion, or syrup and water.

Properties and Uses. - Anaesthetic, hypnotic, narcotic; asthma, colic, angina, tetanus.

Ethyl Ether. AEther - Ethyl Oxide, (C2H5)2O. - (Official.) See page 843.

Ethyl Nitrite. Nitrous Ether, C2H5NO2. - (Official.) See page 845.

Amyl Nitrite. Amyl Nitris, C5H11NO2. - (Official.) See page 846.

4. Urea Derivatives.

Ethyl Carbamate. AEthylis Carbamas. Urethane, C2H5NH2CO2. - (Official.) See page 847.

Euphorin. Phenyl Urethane.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1044

Manufacture: By the interaction of chlor-ethyl-formate and aniline. It is a white crystalline powder, faint aromatic odor, clove-like aftertaste, soluble in alcohol, ether, hydro-alcoholic solutions. Dose, gr 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Antipyretic, analgesic, antirheumatic; as a substitute for iodoform.

Ural. Uralium. - Chloral Urethane, Uraline.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1045

Manufacture: Mix together hydrated chloral and urethane, on adding HC1 they unite into a solid which is insoluble in cold water, treat with H2SO4, wash with water; this compound is decomposed by hot water into its two components, soluble in alcohol or ether. Dose, gr. 10-40 (.6-2.6 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic; cough, angina, insomnia.

Somnal. Ethylated Chloral Urethane.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1046

This is an alcoholic solution of ural, or a union of alcohol, hydrated chloral, and urethane. It is hypnotic in doses ex-40 (.6-2.6 Ml. (Cc.)).

Sucrol. Dulcin. - Para-phenetol-carbamide, Para-ethoxy-phenyl Urea.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1047

Manufacture: Act upon para-phenetidine with carbonyl chloride to form dipara-phenetol-carbamide; heat this in steam digester with urea to 160° C. (320° F.). This compound crystallizes from water in shining needles, sweet taste, soluble in hot water (150), cold water (800), alcohol (25). It is 200 times sweeter than sugar, for which it is used in diabetes.

Thiosinamin. Allyl-thio-urea. - Allyl-sulpho-urea.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1048

Manufacture: Act on allyl-sulphocyanate (mustard oil, C3H6NCS) with ammonia. Occurs in colorless, rhombic crystals, bitterish, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, melts at 74° C. (165° F.), garlic odor. Dose, gr. 1/2-7 (.03 - 5 Gm.), by injection, repeated every 3-4 days. Poisonous.

Properties and Uses. - Inject subcutaneously for lupus, tuberculous diseases; causes absorption of exudate, corneal opacities.

Veronal. Veronalum. Diethylmalonylurea. Diethylbarbituric Acid, C8H12N2O3.

Manufacture: By interaction of diethylmalonic acid and urea. Occurs as a white, odorless, bitterish, crystalline powder, melting at 191° C. (376° F.), soluble in hot water (12), and forms soluble salts.

Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic - insomnia, especially that accompanying hysteria, neurasthenia, and . mental disturbances. Dose, gr. 5 - 15 (.3-1 Gm.), in hot water, tea or milk, wafers, capsules, followed by warm drink of some kind.

5. Thiophene Derivatives = C4H4S.

Thiophene-Di-iodide. - Di-iodo-thiophene.

I Fatty Series Paraffin Or Methane 1049

Manufacture: By the action of iodine on thiophene (C4H4S, a product from benzene) in the presence of mercuric oxide. It is in colorless, volatile crystals, aromatic odor, soluble in ether, chloroform, hot alcohol, insoluble in water; melts at 40.5° C. (104.9° F.); contains 75.5 p. c. iodine and 9.5 p. c. sulphur.

Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic. As a substitute for iodoform.

Sodium Thiophene-sulphonate, C4H3S,SO3Na. - This is a white crystalline powder, containing 33 p. c. sulphur, with a feeble, disagreeable odor, and used like the preceding.