Preparations. - 1. Alcohol Dilutum. Diluted Alcohol. (Syn., Alcohol Dil., Proof Spirit; Fr. Alcool dilue; Ger. Spiritus dilutus (Vini Rectificatus), Verdiinnter Weingeist.) A liquid containing 41-42 p. c. by weight, or 48.4-49.5 p. c. by volume, of C2H5OH.

Manufacture: 1. Alcohol 50 Ml. '(Cc), distilled water 50 Ml. (Cc), when mixed and cooled will measure 97 Ml. (Cc). 2. Alcohol 40.8 Gm., distilled water 50 Gm. It has sp. gr. 0.936; should respond to alcohol tests, and be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.

2. Alcohol Dehydratum. Dehydrated Alcohol. (Syn., Alcohol Dehyd., Alcohol Absolutum, U. S. P. 1900, Alcohol Ethylicum; Fr. Alcool Absolu; Ger. Alcohol absolutus, Absolutor Alkohol.) A liquid containing 99 p. c by weight of C2H5OH.

Manufacture: Percolate the strongest and purest alcohol through recently burned lime, out of contact with air, redistil the percolate in vacuo. It is a transparent, colorless, mobile, volatile liquid; characteristic odor; burning taste, very hygroscopic sp. gr. 0.798. Tests: 1. Shake 10 Ml. (Cc) with powdered anhydrous copper sulphate .5 Gm. - latter not blue (abs. of water). Should respond to alcohol tests, and be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.

Allied Products:

1. Spiritus Frumenti. Whisky, official 1860-1910. - An alcoholic liquid obtained by distilling the mash of fermented grain - such as

Indian corn, rye, wheat and barley, or their mixtures, sometimes oats and potatoes. The infusion is fermented as for alcohol, by which the saccharine matter and indirectly starch are converted into alcohol and CO2; this resulting liquid from the mash is distilled, yielding low wines, which are in turn distilled, giving a stronger and purer spirit with less fusel oil, known as raw corn-spirit or whisky. This is kept in barrels for several years, at least four, to mellow and improve in flavor by formation of compound ethers, then colored, diluted if necessary, and placed upon the market. It is an amber-colored liquid, distinctive odor and taste, sp. gr. 0.924-0.945, corresponding to alcoholic strength 44-50 p. c. by weight, or 50-58 p. c. by volume. Impurities: Fusel oil from grain, added sugar, glycerin, aromatic substances, oak-tannin from casks, free acid.

2. Spiritus Vini Gallici. Brandy, official 1850-1910. - An alcoholic liquid obtained by distilling the fermented, unmodified juice of fresh grapes, and at least 4 years old. When the pure juices of fruits are fermented and the resulting liquid from the marc distilled, the distillate is brandy; hence we may have a number of brandies named according to the fruit used, as grape, apple, peach, etc. It is that of grapes, however, which was once official and still recognized throughout the world under the name of brandy. The best is from the grape wines of France, produced in the districts of Cognac, Armagnac, Bordeaux, Rochelle, etc. Most excellent brands are distilled also in Spain, Portugal, Germany, and United States - Catawba and California being considered our best. Brandy is a pale amber-colored liquid, distinctive odor and taste, sp. gr. 0.925-0.941, corresponding to an alcoholic strength of 39-47 p. c. by weight, or 46-55 p. c. by volume. Impurities: Fusel oil from grain or potato spirit, added sugar, glycerin, aromatic substances, oak-tannin from casks, free acid.

3. Vinum Album. White Wine, official 1880-1910. See page 391. Vinum Xericum. Sherry Wine, official 1850-1880. - Formerly selected as the representative to be used whenever white wine was desired; sp. gr. 0.978-0.995; alcoholic strength 18-22 p. c.

4. Vinum Rubrum. Red Wine, official 1880-1910. See page 391. Vinum Portense. Port Wine, official 1850-1910. - Formerly selected as the representative to be used whenever red wine was desired; it is from the grape cultivated near the river Douro, in Portugal, being exported from Oporto; alcoholic strength 18-22 p. c.

5. Alcohol Amylicum.. Amyl (Amylic) Alcohol, C5H11OH, official 1860-1880. - This is produced during the alcoholic fermentation of grain, and especially potatoes, the great bulk passing over with the last portions of the first distillation which are milky and contain additionally varying amounts of ethyl (20-30 p. a), propyl and iso-butyl alcohols, water, pyridin, furfurol, ethers, etc., differing with the fusel oil source. To purify wash with strong solution sodium chloride or calcium chloride, distil washed residuum, collecting that coming over at 128-131° C. (262-268° F.). It is an oily colorless liquid, penetrating oppressive odor, burning acrid taste, sp. gr. 0.818, boils at 132° C. (269° F.), congeals at - 134°C. ( - 209°F.), soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water. Does not take fire like alcohol, requiring heating to 55° C. (131° F.) before igniting. When treated with an oxidizing agent 2 atoms of H are replaced by 1 of O, giving C5H10O2, which is amylic or valeric (valerianic) acid, this being the method of obtaining nearly all of this acid.

Properties and Uses. - Alcohol in its various forms is stimulant, depressant, diuretic, astringent, disinfectant, antipyretic, rubefacient, diaphoretic; stimulates heart muscle, causing rapid and strong beats, dilates peripheral bloodvessels, stimulates brain by increasing blood supply; before meals improves appetite, during meals retards digestion by checking flow of gastric juice and increasing secretion of mucus, moderate amounts serve as a food, being oxidized during circulation; lessens waste of tissues. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated by kidneys, lungs, skin, and liver. Internally - debility, typhoid and other low fevers, pyaemia, pneumonia, erysipelas, after shocks, fatigue, prolonged sickness, syncope, delirium, febrile stupor, tremor, eruptive and relapsing fevers, consumption, delirium tremens, poisoning by serpents, narcotics, etc., tetanus, epilepsy, reflex convulsions (as in dentition), vomiting of pregnancy, neuralgia. Externally - wounds, abscesses, aneurisms, gangrenous and other ulcers, nipple fissures, sore feet, bruises, sprains, paralyzed limbs, nasal polypi, soft tumors, varicocele. As an anaesthetic to diminish shock of surgical operation, to facilitate reduction of dislocation. Alcohol - in pharmacy is quite indispensible by reason of its extractive and preservative powers; also useful to preserve animal tissue, and in the arts. Whisky - is an excellent stimulant, does not constipate like brandy, and owing to its cheapness and purity is preferred generally. Used also as an antiseptic in wounds, ulcers, etc. Brandy - on the other hand, is more grateful to the stomach, more palatable, and less apt than whisky, gin, etc., to cause liver or kidney diseases. It is much used in low fevers, with milk, flavored to the patient's taste. White and Red Wines - tonic in convalescence, excessive discharge of blood, prolonged suppuration, etc. Amyl alcohol - poisonous, and should be given cautiously as a nervous stimulant, in phthisis; chiefly used to make amyl nitrite, fruit-essences (ether), sodium valerate, and valeric acid.