Poisoning: Have confused mind, giddiness, muscular relaxation, hallucinations, stupor, coma, rapid, weak pulse, cool, moist skin, dilated pupils, noisy breathing, livid lips; usually can arouse for a short time. Continued abuse may produce chronic gastritis, liver cirrhosis, gout, peripheral neuritis, delirium tremens, mania, Bright's disease, predisposes to phthisis, and lessens resistence to pneumonia and surgical operations. When acute, empty stomach by mustard, hypodermic apomorphine, or pump, washing it out well with strong warm coffee, plenty fresh air, inhale ammonia, give aromatic spirit of ammonia, coffee, capsicum, vinegar, hot milk, apply cold water to head, warmth to body and extremities, electricity. In delirium may quiet with hydrated chloral, potassium bromide, opium, follow with digitalis, strychnine, possibly gastric sedatives (bismuth subnitrate, phenol (carbolic acid), etc.).
2. Triatomic Alcohols.
Glycerinum. Glycerin, C3H5(OH)3. - (Syn., Glycerol, Glycerine, Glycerina; Fr. Glycerine; Ger. Glyceryloxyhydrate, Oelsuss, Schee-leches Suss.)
Manufacture: Glycerin (Gr.
sweet - its taste) is obtained by the hydrolysis of vegetable or animal fats, or fixed oils, and purified by distillation; when these are acted upon (decomposed) by an alkali, this latter unites with the fatty acids, forming soap, and liberates glycerin:
Glyceryl Oleate (Olive Oil).
Glyceryl Hydroxide (Glycerin).
Sodium Oleate. (Hard Soap).
It is a clear, colorless, thick, syrupy liquid, slight, characteristic odor; sweet taste, with the sensation of warmth in the mouth; absorbs moisture on exposure; miscible with water, alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, ether, benzene, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphide, fixed or volatile oils; aqueous solution neutral, sp. gr. 1.249; contains 95 p. c. of the trihydric alcohol, C3H5(OH)3. Tests: 1. Does not volatilize appreciably from weak aqueous solution; when of 70-100 p. c. strength, rapidly volatilizes at 100° C. (212° F.). 2. Heat a few drops with .5 Gm. of potassium bisulphate - pungent vapors of acrolein evolved. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, ammonium compounds, acrolein, glucose, fatty acids and esters, sulphate, oxalic acid, readily carboniz-able substances. Dose, ex-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc.)).
Preparation. - 1. Suppositoria Glycerini. Suppositories of Glycerin. (Syn., Supp. Glycerin.; Br. Glycerin Suppositories; Fr. Suppositoires de Glycerin; Ger. Glycerin Suppositorien (Stuhlzapfchen).)
Manufacture: Dissolve monohydrated sodium carbonate .5 Gm. in water 5 Ml. (Cc), add it to glycerin 30 Gm., in suitable vessel well down in the boiling water of water-bath and contents protected from steam of bath, add stearic acid 2 Gm., heat for 15 minutes, until all carbon dioxide evolved and liquid clear; pour into 10 molds, cool. Should be kept cool, in tightly-stoppered glass vessels.
Properties and Uses. - Irritant, laxative, solvent, emollient when diluted. Externally - skin diseases (eczema, herpes, lepra, pityriasis, psoriasis, lichen, prurigo); in lotiqn for incrusted lupus, chapped skin, excoriated surfaces, fissures, of anus and nipple, wounds, boils, carbuncles, abscesses, coryza, pharyngitis, otorrhoea; allays itching, dryness of mouth, deafness. Internally - phthisis, diabetes, typhoid fever, constipation, in enemas or suppositories, ascarides, dysentery, hemorrhoids, leucorrhoea. In pharmacy as a solvent (iodine, bromine, tannin, alkaloids, salicin, alkalies, etc.), vehicle, excipient, preservative, to keep extracts soft and from molding, etc. Suppositories - for constipation, acting as mechanical irritants; 1 applied night and morning.
Spiritus Glycerylis Nitratis. Spirit of Glyceryl Trinitrate. - (Syn.,
Sp. Glyceryl, Nit., Spirit of Glonoin, Spirit of Nitroglycerin; Br.
Liquor Trinitrini, Solution of Trinitrin; Propenyl Trinitrate.)
Manufacture: Gradually add dehydrated glycerin (7) to well-cooled solution of sodium nitrate (20) in sulphuric acid (40); or slowly add glycerin (1) to a mixture of nitric acid 1 and sulphuric acid 2 (7), at below 27° C. (80° F.), the radical NO replacing hydrogen in the glycerin - C3H5(OH)3 + 3HNO3 = C3H5(NO3)3 + 3H2O; in cither case the glyceryl trinitrate separates as an oily layer, which is washed with water and dilute sodium hydroxide solution to remove acid. It is an alcoholic solution containing 1-1.1 p. c. of glyceryl trinitrate, C3H5(NO3)3, clear, colorless, neutral, odor and taste of alcohol (must use caution in tasting, as a small quantity produces violent headache, as it does also when freely applied to the skin), sp. gr. 0.814-0.820. Tests: 1. Heat on water-bath 10 Ml. (Cc.) with 1 Ml. (Cc.) of potassium hydroxide T. S. until alcohol evaporated, heat portion of residue with .5 Gm. of potassium bisulphate - pungent odor of acrolein; dissolve remaining portion in 2 Ml. (Cc.) of acidulated (H2SO4) distilled water, + few drops of diphenylamine T. S., pour solution upon 2 Ml. (Cc.) of sulphuric acid so as to form a separate layer - dark blue color at zone of contact. 2. Mix 10 Ml. (Cc.) with 11 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water - clear solution; add distilled water 2 Ml. (Cc.) - turbid mixture. Should be kept cool, dark, remote from fire in well-stoppered bottles, and must be dispensed, handled, packed, transported, and stored with great care, as dangerous explosions may result when spilled and alcohol evaporated - should such occur pour over it at once a solution of potassium hydroxide to effect partial decomposition. Dose, ej-3 (.06-.2 Ml. (Cc.)), mouth or hypodermically.
Preparations. - (Unoff.): Pilalae Glycerylis Nitratis: spirit of glyceryl trinitrate 6.5 Gm., althaea 6.5, confection of rose q. s. 100 pills. Tabellae Trinitrini (Br.), each contains trinitroglycerin, 1/130 gr. (.0005 Gm.), dose, 1-2 tablets.