Poisoning: Resembles opium somewhat; have deep coma, weak, irregular, slow pulse, pupils dilated when awake, slow respiration, lividity, reflexes abolished, skin cold, temperature below normal. Give emetics or wash out stomach, weak potassium hydroxide solution, cold to head and neck; abundant fresh air, cataplasms, hot bottles, blankets, massage and friction to increase heat; keep awake with coffee, caffeine, galvanism, flagellation, hypodermic strychnine or picrotoxin, inhale amyl nitrite to stimulate heart, artificial respiration.
Chloral habit (toxaemiia, chloralism) is soon acquired, and is manifested in voluble speech, injected eyes, gastro-intestinal irritation, erythematous eruptions, dyspnoea, general weakness, and permanent mental disturbance. To cure, should withdraw drug, use hygienic and medicinal tonics with cannabis.
Incompatibles: Alkalies, lime water, atropine, strychnine, external heat.
Synergists: Hypnotics, morphine (also lessens heart depression).
Methylthioninae Chloridum. Methylthionine Chloride. - (Syn., Methylthionin. Chlor., Methylthininae Hydrochloridum, U. S. P. 1900, Methylene Blue, Methylenum Cseruleum, Tetramethylthionine Hydrochloride; Fr. Chlorhydrate de Tetramethylethionine; Ger. Tetramethylthioninchlorid, Methylen Blau.)
Manufacture: This tetramethylthionine chloride, C16H18N3SCl + 3H2O, is obtained by treating para-amido-dimethylaniline in hydrochloric acid solution with hydrogen sulphide, and subsequently with ferric chloride; or act upon para-amido-dimethylaniline hydrochloride with sodium nitrite, hydrogen sulphide and ferric chloride. It is a dark green, crystalline powder or prismatic crystals with bronze-like lustre, soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, the solutions being deep blue. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution with hydrochloric acid changes to lighter blue; with sodium hydroxide T. S. changes to purple, and if in excess produces, on standing, a dull violet precipitate. 2. Solution in diluted sulphuric acid, + zinc dust - decolorizes gradually; incinerate .5 Gm. - ash 1 p. c. Impurities: Arsenic, zinc, dextrin. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Should not be confounded with methyl blue; anodyne, antiperiodic, antipyretic, analgesic, antiseptic; rheumatism, neuralgia, cystitis, intermittent fevers (good substitute for quinine), urethritis, colors urine blue, and may irritate neck of bladder.
Chloroformurn. Chloroform. - (Syn., Chlorof., Chloroformum Puri-ficatum, Formylum Trichloratum, Terchloride of Formyl, Dichlormethyl Chloride; Fr. Chloroforme (pur); Ger. Chloroformium, Chloroform.) A liquid consisting of 99-99.4 p. c. by weight of absolute chloroform and .6-1 p. c. of alcohol.
Manufacture: Chloroform (chlor(ine) + form(yl)) is the trichloride of methane, or methyl, CH4, in which 3 hydrogen atoms are removed and replaced by 3 chlorine atoms. In actual practice, water 24 parts, alcohol 1, chlorinated lime 6, are put into a still and heated to 50° C. (122° F.), when chloroform, alcohol and water distil over, the heat from chemical reaction being sufficient to continue the process; the distillate consists of two layers, and the lower is removed, thoroughly washed with water (to get rid of undecomposed alcohol), then repeatedly with sulphuric acid until it is no longer discolored; now treat with sodium carbonate solution, wash with water, dehydrate with calcium chloride, potassium carbonate or phosphoric anhydride, and fractionally distil, collecting that coming over at 59-62° C. (138-144° F.). Here the chlorine of the lime converts alcohol into aldehyde, then into chloral, which is decomposed at once by the inherently formed alkali - calcium hydroxide - into chloroform and calcium formate, Ca(CHO2)2, hence the various names - 2C2H6O + Ca(OCl)2 - 2C2H4O + CaCl2 + 2H2O; 2C2H4O + 3Ca(OCl)2 = 2C2HC13O + 3Ca(OH)2; 2C2HC13O (chloral) + Ca(OH)2 = 2CHC13 + Ca(CHO2)2. This process has now given way to that of acetone, which consists in distilling acetone (10) diluted with water (30) + chlorinated lime (100) with water (300); purify as above - 2C3H6O + 3Ca(OCl)2 = 2C3H3OC13 + 3Ca(OH)2; 2(C3H3OC13) + Ca(OH)2 = 2CHC13 + Ca(C2H3O2)2. It is a clear, colorless, mobile liquid, characteristic, ethereal odor, burning, sweet taste, soluble in water (210), miscible with alcohol, ether, benzene, petroleum benzin, fixed or volatile oils, boils at 61° C. (142° F.), sp. gr. 1.476, non-inflammable, but its heated vapor burns with a green flame. Test: 1. Pour 20 Ml. (Cc.) upon odorless filter paper on a warmed glass plate, rock plate from side to side until liquid evaporated - no foreign odor perceptible as last portions disappear, paper odorless. Impurities: Chlorides, free chlorine, substances decomposable by sulphuric acid (dark), chlorinated and odorous decomposition compounds. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered bottles, and care should be used in vaporizing it in the presence of naked flame, as noxious gases are produced.
Purification: When chloroform contains any of the preceding, it should be purified by taking 400 Gm. and shaking with H2SO4 80 Gm. occasionally for 24 hours, avoiding exposure to bright daylight; this process chars and removes hydrocarbons; now separate lighter chloroform layer and shake it with dried Na2CO3 20 Gm. to free from acid, transfer chloroform to dry retort, add deodorized alcohol 4 Ml. (Cc), and distil at 67° C. (153° F.) until the distillate measures 255 Ml. (Cc). Dose, eij-20 (.13-1.3 Ml. (Cc)).
Preparations. - 1. Aqua Chloroformi. Chloroform Water. (Syn., Aq. Chlorof.; Fr. Eau de Chloroforme; Ger. Chloroformwasser.)
Manufacture: To a convenient quantity of recently boiled distilled water (750 Ml. (Cc)), in a dark amber-colored bottle, add enough chloroform (4 Ml. (Cc.)) to maintain slight excess of latter after repeated and thorough shaking; when required for use pour off needed quantity, refill bottle with recently boiled distilled water, saturate by thorough agitation, always preserving an excess of chloroform. Should be kept cool, dark. Dose, 3j - 4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)).