Rhigolene. Obtained from petroleum by redistillation until a liquid is secured boiling at 18° C. (64.4° F.). It evaporates more rapidly than all known liquids (except cymogene, which boils at 0° C. (32° F.)), and when atomized gives a temperature of - 9° C. (15.8° F.). Used to produce local numbness, or freezing, for minor operations by cautery, etc.
Paraffinum. Paraffin. - (Syn., Paraff.; Br. Paraffinum Durum, Hard Paraffin; Fr. Paraffine; Ger. Paraffinum solidum, Ceresin, Festes Paraffin, Gereinigtes Erdwachs.)
Manufacture: This is a purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons, chiefly of the methane series, usually obtained by chilling and pressing the distillates from petroleum having high boiling-points, and purifying the solid press cake so obtained. Paraffins are formed from fats and other organic compounds, but chiefly result from destructive distillation of bituminous shale, etc., found as natural constituent in petroleum and in minerals known as mineral wax, earth-wax, and ozokerite. The tarry oil of shale is distilled, giving a residue of coke and asphalt, treat distillate with sulphuric acid, then with sodium hydroxide (to remove olefins, phenols), wash product, redistil, and after recovery of lighter hydrocarbons and lubricating oils, the remaining thick oil upon cooling separates paraffin; dissolve crude paraffin in petroleum or naphtha, again separate by refrigeration and pressure, melt, decolorize by filtering through animal charcoal. It is a colorless, white, more or less translucent mass, crystalline when separating from solution, slightly greasy to the touch, odorless, tasteless, soluble in ether, petroleum benzin, benzene, carbon disulphide, volatile oils, most warm fixed oils, slightly in dehydrated alcohol, insoluble in water or alcohol, sp. gr. 0.900, melts at 54° C. (129° F.), strongly heated ignites, burning with luminous flame depositing carbon; contains chiefly C21H50 and C27H56. Tests: 1. Heat .5 Gm. with equal weight of sulphur - mixture black from separated carbon, and hydrogen sulphide gas is evolved. 2. Not acted upon or colored by strong sulphuric or nitric acid in the cold; when melted and shaken with an equal volume of hot alcohol - latter does not redden moistened blue litmus paper (abs. of acids).
Preparation. - 1. Unguentum Acidi Borici, 5 p. c.
Properties and Uses. - Protective, emollient; preserves lemons, meat, etc., when coated with thin film, makes paper impervious to moisture, lubricator, chewing gum, to adulterate candies, chocolate, coat pills, bottles, jars, boxes, to correct deformities, inject into tissues, ointments, candles.
These are hydrocarbon residues in combination with hydroxyl, OH, or hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by hydroxyl, if 1 = monatomic, 2 = diatomic, 3 = triatomic, 4 = tetratomic alcohols, etc. They are hydroxides of the organic radicals or residues, as thus shown:
Here methane, CH4, is converted into methyl, CH3, which combines with hydroxyl, OH, to form methyl alcohol. Ethane, C2H6, is converted into ethyl, C2H5, which unites with OH to form ethyl alcohol, etc.
1. Monatomic Alcohols.
Alcohol. Alcohol, C2H5OH. - (Syn., Alcohol Vini, Spirit of Wine, Common (Ethyl) Alcohol, Spiritus Vini Rectificatissimus; Br. Spiritus Rectificatus, Rectified Spirit; Fr. Alcool, Esprit de Vin; Ger. Spiritus, (Rectificirter) Weingeist.) A liquid composed of 92.3 p. c. by weight, or 94.9 p. c. by volume, of ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, and 7.7 p. c. by weight of water.
Manufacture: 1. From ethene, C2H4, by adding the elements of water, which can be done by shaking with sulphuric acid - (1) C2H4 + H2SO4 = C2H5HSO4. (2) C2H5HSO4 + H2O + distillation = C2H5-OH + H2SO4. 2. Obtained on a large scale by the mashing process - fermenting (with yeast, etc.) certain weak saccharine solutions containing grape-sugar or glucose - C6H12O6 + ferment = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2. In actual practice, grain, such as barley, corn, rye, wheat, is malted or germinated. Here the starch is acted on by the contained ferment (diastase), converting it into maltodextrin and maltose, and finally into dextrose, apparently by the simple appropriation of water - 3C6H10O5 (starch) + H2O = C6H10O5 (dextrin) + C12H22O11 (maltose)
C6H10O5 + C12H22O11 + H2O = 3C6H12O6 (dextrose). This will be transformed into other products if germination be allowed to go on, but prior to that resulting (when acrospire is about one-third the length of the grain, and maximum amount of diastase is present), the sprouted grain is roasted, ground, then infused in warm water, thus forming mash, and the yielded dextrose solution, wort, fermented by yeast. This fermented liquid, wash, contains water, fusel oil, glycerin, succinic acid, and never more than 14 p. c. alcohol, as the yeast plant is unable to live in a fluid of greater strength. By first distillation get low wine (about 20 p. c. alcohol), and by second distillation a liquid much richer in alcohol - raw whisky, which treated with charcoal, redistilled and vapors passed through a series of condensers gives a product free from water and other impurities - the final traces of these being removed by redistillation over sodium manganate, anhydrous sodium acetate (2 p. c. for odor), and freshly burned lime. It is a transparent, colorless, mobile, volatile liquid; slight characteristic odor, burning taste; miscible with water, ether, chloroform in all proportions without cloudiness, neutral; sp. gr. 0.816; boils at 78° C. (178° F.). Tests: 1. Inflammable - burning with bluish smokeless flame. 2. Evaporate 50 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .002 Gm. Impurities: Fusel oil constituents, aldehyde, amyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, acetone, oak tannin, nonvolatile carbonizable organic substances. Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.