Properties. - Internally - increases appetite, narcotic, eliminated by secretions, chiefly in urine, as iodine, iodides, and iodates. Externally - antiseptic, disinfectant, analgesic, local stimulant, anaesthetic.
Uses. - Externally - ulcers, sores, wounds, tuberculous and syphilitic ulcers, cancer, metritis, endometritis, swollen glands, pleural effusions, also of pericardium, inflamed joints, diphtheria, chronic cystitis, goitre, gonorrhoea, buboes, ozaena, ulcer of tongue, chronic otorrhoea, ringworm of scalp, purulent ophthalmia, ulcerated eyelids, corneal ulcers, hemorrhoids, lupus, pruritus of vagina and testes, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, prurigo), erysipelas, ulcers of larynx, nasal catarrh, gangrene, vaginismus, neuralgia, heart disease, orchitis, carious teeth, boils, carbuncles, scrofula. The odor may be modified by the addition of some aromatic substance, such as vanillin, musk, oils of bergamot, lavender, peppermint, sassafras, etc., balsam of Peru, thymol, eucalyptol, etc.
Poisoning: Usually have symptoms of meningitis - headache, stupor, gastro-intestinal irritation, melancholia, hallucinations, contracted pupils, high temperature, erythema, delirium, rapid pulse, death. Give potassium bromide, which dissolves the iodine compound, lemonade, potassium acetate solutions, stimulants, diaphoretics, diuretics, warm sponge bath, small repeated doses of tincture of opium, large doses of potassium bicarbonate, diluents freely.
Incompatibles: Mercuric chloride, etc.
1. Iodolum. Iodol (Tetraiodo-pyrrol, Pyrrol Tetraiodide), C4I4NH, official 1900-1910.
Obtained from pyrrol, which in turn comes from Dippel's oil (bone oil), by purifying and acting upon it with iodine in alcoholic solution for 24 hours, then adding water to separate the iodol. It is a light grayish-brown crystalline powder, odorless, tasteless, soluble in fixed oils, sulphuric acid, alcohol (9), ether (1.5), chloroform (105), water (4900), decomposes at 145° C. (293° F.), liberating violet iodine vapors; contains iodine 88.97 p. c. Impurities: Inorganic substances, hydri-odic acid, iodides, free iodine. Antiseptic, stimulant, a substitute for iodoform externally and for potassium iodide internally; tertiary syphilis, scrofula, diabetes, eczema,, wounds. Dose, gr. 1/2-10 (.03-.G Gm.).
AEthylis Chloridum. Ethyl Chloride. - (Syn., AEthyl. Chlor., AEthylum Chloratum, AEther Chloratus, Monochlorethane, Hydrochloric Ether; Fr. Chlorure d'Ethyle, Ether hydrochlorique; Ger.
Manufacture: Pass dry hydrochloric acid gas into alcohol, distil at moderate heat, wash distillate with water and weak alkaline solution, rectify; or heat equal volumes of alcohol and hydrochloric acid for a time under increased pressure (40 atmospheres) at 150° C. (302° F.), distil resulting product, pass vapors through warm water, then over calcium chloride (to dry), and condense in well-cooled vessels - C2H5OH + HO = C2H5C1 + H2O. It is at low temperatures a colorless, mobile, very volatile liquid, characteristic, ethereal odor, burning taste; soluble in alcohol, ether, slightly in water; sp. gr. 0.921; boils at 13° C. (55° P.); burns with smoky, greenish flame producing hydrogen chloride. Tests: 1. Dissolve 1 Ml. (Cc.) in alcohol (20), both at melting ice temperature, + few drops of silver nitrate T. S. - no turbidity at once (abs. of hydrochloric acid). 2. Shake 10 Ml. (Cc.) with equal volume of distilled water, both at melting ice temperature, allow supernatant ethyl chloride to evaporate, add to residual, neutral liquid a few drops of potassium dichromate T. S. + some diluted sulphuric acid, boil - no odor of aldehyde, nor greenish or purplish liquid (abs. of alcohol). 3. Evaporate 5 Ml. (Cc.) - no foreign odor at the last traces, and no weighable residue. Impurities: Hydrochloric acid, alcohol, etc. When liberated, at ordinary room temperature, from its sealed container it vaporizes at once, the gas being very inflammable and therefore must not be used in proximity to fire. On the market in small glass tubes, the pointed apex of which is broken off and the ethyl chloride vaporized by heat of the hand. Should be kept cool, dark, remote from fire in hermetically sealed containers. Dose, ex-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties and Uses. - Local and general anaesthetic; in the former it freezes the part, producing white spot, and not until then is the incision made; used to benumb nerves in supraorbital neuralgia; in minor surgical operations, dentistry, etc.
Acetonum. Acetone. - (Syn., Aceton., Dimethyl-ketone, Acetyl-methylid, Spiritus Pyroaceticus, Pyroacetic Spirit; Fr. Esprit pyro-acetique; Ger. Essiggeist, Mesitalkohol.)
Manufacture: By the dry distillation of wood, of acetates, citric acid, sugar (carbohydrates) + lime, but chiefly from calcium acetate - Ca(C2H3O2)2, + dry distillation = (CH3)2CO + CaCO3; the distillate is neutralized with dry sodium carbonate, treated with calcium chloride and purified by fractional distillation over lime; now made largely by decomposing acetic acid vapor by passing it through a rotating iron cylinder containing pumice stone and precipitated barium carbonate, at a temperature of 500-600° C, (932-1112° F.) - 2HC2H3O2 + heat = C3H6O + CO2 + H2O. It is a transparent, colorless, mobile, volatile, neutral liquid, characteristic ethereal odor, pungent, sweetish taste; miscible without cloudiness with water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, volatile oils; sp. gr. 0.790; boils at 57° C. (135° F.); inflammable - luminous non-sooty flame; contains 99 p. c. by weight of acetone. Tests: 1. Evaporate 25 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .002 Gm. 2. Mix 20 Ml. (Cc.) with N/10 potassium permanganate V. S. (.1) - pink tint should not disappear in less than 15 minutes (lim. of empyreumatic substances). Impurities: Empyreumatic substances, etc. Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers. Dose, ex-20 (.6-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)).