Preparations. - 1. Acidum Aceticum Dilutum. Diluted Acetic Acid. (Syn., Acid. Acet. Dil.; Fr. Acide acetique dilue; Ger. Acetum Purum (Distillatum), Verdunnte Essigsaure.)
Manufacture: Mix acetic acid 120 Gm. with distilled water 610 Gm. It is an aqueous solution containing 5.7-6.3 p. c. of HC2H3O2; miscible with water, alcohol; sp. gr. 1.008. Tests and Impurities: Same as for strong acid. Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)).
Much of the weaker acetic acid is the result of weak alcohol or aldehyde oxidation, made by allowing diluted alcohol (8-10 p. c.) to trickle downward through wood-shavings packed in barrels, so as to afford free circulation of air, the percolate being returned as often as (four times) required for complete oxidation. The presence of the growth "mother of vinegar" (Mycoder'ma ace'ti) facilitates greatly the conversion - C2H5OH + O2 = C2H3O,OH + H2O. This usually is called vinegar, and contains about 4-5 p. c. of pure acetic acid.
Acidum Aceticum Glaciale. Glacial Acetic Acid, HC2H3O2. - (Syn., Acid. Acet. Glac; Br. Acidum Aceticum (Concentratum), Acetum Glaciale; Fr. Acide acetique (concentre) Crystallizable, Esprit de Vinaigre, Acetum glaciale, Vinaigre Glacial; Ger. Essigsaure, Eisessig.)
Manufacture: Sodium acetate 13.5 parts, deprived of water of crystallization (then making 8.25 parts), is distilled with H2SO4 9.5 to 10 parts, when the distillate can be evaporated and crystallized at 0° C. (32° F.) - NaCaHA + H2SO4 = HC2H3O2 + NaHSO4. Every 136 parts of crystallized sodium acetate yields 60 parts of acetic acid. It is a clear, colorless liquid, strong, vinegar-like odor, pungent, acid taste and reaction, sp. gr. 1.047, congeals into crystals at 14.5° C. (58° F.), boils at 117° (243° F.), miscible with water, alcohol; contains 99 p. c. of HC2H3O2. Tests and Impurities: Same as for acetic acid, if diluted to its strength, but when 2 Ml. (Cc.) are mixed with distilled water (10), + N/10 potassium permanganate V. S. (.1) - tint (pink) produced not changed to brown within 2 hours.
Properties. - Corrosive, irritant, refrigerant, astringent.
Uses. - Vapor applied to nostrils as an excitant in syncope, asphyxia, headache. Glacial Acid - mostly applied externally to warts, corns, for blistering, favus, lichen, prurigo, psoriasis, cancer, nasal polypus.
1. Acetum. Vinegar, official 1820-1880. - Obtained by the acetous fermentation of infusions of malted and unmalted grain, or of various fruit juices.
2. Acitlum Aceticinu Empyreinuatieum. Pyroligneous Acid, official 1830 - 1840. (Syn., Fr. Acide acetique du bois, Acide pyroacetique (pyroligneux); Ger. Roher Holzessig(saure).) Obtained by the destructive distillation of wood; yield of acetic acid 0-8-9 p. c.
Acidum Trichloraceticum. Trichloracetic Acid, HC2C13O2. - (Syn., Acid. Trichloracet., Chloracetic Acid; Fr. Acide trichloracetique; Ger. Trichloressigsaure.) A monobasic organic acid containing 99 p. c. of HC2C13O2.
Manufacture: Add fuming nitric acid 63 Gm. to hydrated chloral 165.5 Gm., previously fused at 58° C. (136° F.), set aside mixture for an hour, or until red vapors cease to be formed, then carefully distil at 190° C. (374° F.). It is in colorless, deliquescent, rhombo-hedral crystals, slight, characteristic odor, acid reaction; soluble in water (.1), very soluble in alcohol, ether; heated with potassium hydroxide T. S. - decomposes into chloroform and potassium carbonate; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) 10 Ml. (Cc), + few drops of silver nitrate T. S - only slightly opalescent (abs. of chlorides). 2. Dissolve in 5 Ml. (Cc.) of aqueous solution (1 in 20) a small crystal of ferrous sulphate, pour solution upon sulphuric acid, free from nitrogen compounds (5), so as to form a layer above - no brownish-red at zone of contact of two liquids (abs. of nitric acid).
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic, escharotic. Penetrates deeply, but causes less pain than either silver nitrate, zinc chloride, or potassium hydroxide. Removes warts, condylomata, lupus, diseases of the nose and throat; used here in preference to chromic acid.
Acidum Oleicum. Oleic Acid, HC18H33O2. - (Syn., Acid. Oleic, Acidum (Oleinicum) Elainicum, Elaic Acid; Fr. Acide oleique; Ger. Oleinsaure, Oelsaure.) An acid obtained from fats, consisting chiefly of HC18H33O2.
Manufacture: Digest almond oil with lead oxide and water, when dry separate oleate of lead from other salts by solution in ether, precipitate lead from ethereal solution with hydrochloric acid, evaporate filtrate; large quantities are obtained also as a by-product in making stearic acid for stearin candles. It is a yellowish, brownish-yellow, oily liquid, peculiar, lard-like odor and taste free from rancidity; darker and absorbs oxygen on exposure; insoluble in water, partially soluble in 60 p. c. alcohol, much more so in alcohol, miscible with 85 p. c. alcohol; soluble in chloroform, benzene, petroleum benzin, fixed or volatile oils, sp. gr. 0.895; semi-solid at 9° C. (48° F.), congeals to solid, whitish mass at 4° C. (39° F.), begins to decompose at 95° C, (203° F.) producing acid vapors. Tests: 1. Incinerate 5 Ml. (Cc.) - ash .005 Gm.
2. Shake with distilled water (1); the separated water after filtration + a drop of methyl orange T. S. - not reddened (abs. of mineral acids).
3. Boil 1 Gm. + monohydrated sodium carbonate (.5) + distilled water (30) in a capacious flask - resulting solution, while hot, clear or possibly opalescent (abs. of undecomposed fat, mineral oil). Impurities: Mineral acids, undecomposed fat or mineral oil). Should be kept cool, in well-closed glass or stoneware containers.