V. Ethers.

These are formed from alcohols by replacing the hydrogen of hydroxyl by the same or other alcohol radicals, thus:

I Fatty Series 957

Ethyl Alcohol

I Fatty Series 958

Ethyl Ether

I Fatty Series 959

Ethyl-methyl Ether

Ethers are the oxides of organic radicals or residues, and these latter may be alike or different, thus giving simple or mixed ethers.

AEther. Ether. - (Syn., AEther Fortior, AEther Sulphuricus, Hydric Ether, Naphtha Vitrioli, Hydrate of Ethylen, Oxide of Ethyl; Fr.

Ether hydrique - vinique - sulfurique; Ger. Ather, Schwefelather.) A liquid containing 95.5-97.5 p. c. of ethyl oxide, (C2H5)2O, the remainder consisting of alcohol containing a little water.

I Fatty Series 960

Manufacture: 1. By action of chloride or iodide of hydrocarbon residue upon an alcohol in which the hydrogen of hydroxyl has been replaced by a metal:

I Fatty Series 961

2. By action of sulphuric acid on alcohols, whereby 1 molecule of water is abstracted from 2 molecules of alcohol; this is the general process, and consists in distilling together alcohol and sulphuric acid at about 130° C. (266° F.), passing the vapors through two purifiers, one of cast iron containing solution potassium hydroxide to remove water and other impurities, the other of block-tin containing pebble-stones to recondense alcoholic and other vapors of higher boiling-points than ether.

C2H5OH

+

H2SO4

=

C2H5HSO4

+

H2O

Ethylsulphuric acid.

This ethylsulphuric acid acts upon another alcohol molecule, giving ether - C2H6HSO4 + C2H5OH = (C2H5)2O + H2SO4. This process, in theory, is continuous, the H2SO4, last formed again acting on fresh alcohol as it is supplied; in practice this is not true, as the H2SO4 becomes, after a time, so weak from the accumulated water, which never entirely goes over, that it will not act upon the alcohol. Each gallon (4 L.) of alcohol yields about 4 pounds (2 Kg.) of ether. It is a transparent, colorless, mobile liquid; characteristic odor; burning, sweetish taste; soluble in water (12) with slight contraction of volume; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, petroleum benzin, benzene, fixed or volatile oils, highly volatile and inflammable, its vapor mixed with air exploding violently; slowly oxidizes by air into peroxides; sp. gr. 0.715; boils at 35° C. (95° F.). Tests: 1. Does not change dampened blue litmus to red in 10 minutes. 2. Spontaneous evaporated residue moistened - odorless, neither reddens nor bleaches blue litmus. 3. Evaporate 30 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .001 Gm.; evaporated from blotting paper - no foreign odor at the last traces. Impurities: Water, alcohol, aldehyde, peroxides, mostly removed by the purifiers. Should be kept cool, dark, remote from fire in partially filled, well-closed containers (preferably tin cans); when for anaesthesia should be dispensed only in small, well-closed containers, and not used after the latter have been opened 24 hours. Dose, ev-60 (.3-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preparations. - 1. Spiritus AEtheris. Spirit of Ether. (Syn., Sp. AEth., Hoffmann's Drops, Liquor Anodynus Mineralis Hoffmanni; Fr. AEther Sulfuricus Alcoolisatus, Ether hydrique (sulfurique) alcoolise, Liqueur anodine d'Hoffmann; Ger. Spiritus aethereus, Atherweingeist, Hoffmann' (sche) Tropfen.)

Manufacture: Mix ether 32.5 Ml. (Cc), with alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc). Dose, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc)).

Unoff. Preps.: Oleum AEhereum (Ethereal Oil): add slowly sulphuric acid 1000 Ml. (Cc) to alcohol 1000 Ml. (Cc), after 24 hours distil until all oily drops have passed over, separate yellow ethereal liquid portion, expose to the air for 24 hours, filter off aqueous portion, wash oil left on filter with cold distilled water 25 Ml. (Cc), when drained add to oil an equal volume of ether. Spiritus AEtheris Compositus (Hoffmanns Anodyne): ether 32.5 Ml. (Cc), alcohol 65 Ml. (Cc), ethereal oil 2.5 ML (Cc), dose, ev-60 (.3-4 Ml (Cc)).

Properties. - Internally - acts like chloroform or alcohol, cardiac stimulant, anaesthetic, narcotic, carminative, antispasmodic. Externally - irritant, local anaesthetic, stimulant, refrigerant. The heart, vasomotor and respiratory centres are paralyzed much less easily by ether than by chloroform; ether, however, is a more intense renal and bronchial irritant, also more likely to induce vomiting and a more protracted stage of stimulation, hence more struggling.

Uses. - Internally - nausea, dyspepsia, flatulent and biliary colic, neuralgia of the gums, earache, fainting, cardiac failure or palpitation, asthma; here more rapid than chloroform in action, hence for these cases it is better. Ether is inhaled to blunt sensibility in surgical operations, to relax muscles in dislocations, strangulated hernia, neuralgia, biliary and renal colic, dysmenorrhoea, tetanus, spasms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, labor, extracting teeth, headache, vomiting of pregnancy, hysteria, tseniae, biliary calculi, whooping-cough, spasmodic croup, delirium tremens, mania, lumbago, sciatica, collapse in opium-and hydrated-chloral-poisoning, convulsions. Should inhale ether slowly through the nostrils, on empty stomach, and watch the pulse closely. If beats become slow, feeble, or quick, the sponge should at once be removed; best inhaled from sponge fixed in a paper cone having the larger end over the face and the smaller end cut off to admit a small amount (30 p. c) of air. It requires about ℥ij (60 Ml. (Cc)) and 5-15 minutes to produce insensibility. On recovery have more nausea and vomiting than follows chloroform, which may be checked by sodium bromide gr. 15 (1 Gm.); should not use it at night, and never near flame or fire. One death occurs from every 16,000 inhalations. Externally - headache, toothache, earache, neuralgia, deafness, photophobia, hernia, hiccough, malignant pustule, carbuncle, tonsillitis. Also may freeze by ether part to be operated upon, and thus deaden pain. The two spirits are useful in sleeplessness, restlessness, nervous disturbance, hysteria, flatulent and uterine colic.

Incompatibles: Arterial sedatives, strychnine, picrotoxin.

Synergists: Arterial and cerebral stimulants, chloroform, alcohol, etc.

Allied Product: