Chloretone, Choc. Obtained by the interaction of chloroform, acetone, and an alkali, and occurs in white crystals, soluble in alcohol, largely in warm water, sparingly in cold, sublimes at body temperature into white glistening needles, stable in presence of diluted acids and alkalies; permanent, non-toxic, non-irritating.
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic, analgesic, local anaesthetic, anodyne, sedative, antiseptic; resembles cocaine, but has less toxic effects upon the heart; slightly lessens pulse-rate, but does not reduce force of cardiac systole nor lower the blood-pressure; considered superior to cocaine, beta-eucaine, hydrated chloral, sulphonal, trional, etc., for insomnia, gastric carcinoma, gastritis, sea-sickness, vomiting of pregnancy, nausea, wounds, cuts, abrasions, minor operations. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); apply locally the powder or saturated aqueous solution.
Chloroform made by the acetone process has been sold under this name, with the recommendation of its not reducing the force of cardiac systole nor lowering blood-pressure.
Bromoformum. Bromoform. - (Syn., Bromof., Methyl Tribromide, Tribrom-methane, Dibromomethyl-bromide; Gr. Bromoformium.)
Manufacture: Chlorinated lime (00) is made into paste with water and added to potassium bromide (71.5) dissolved in water (150), add acetone (12), distil in current of steam until oily drops cease to come over, cool apparatus, add chlorinated lime (60), acetone (9), distil, repeat this operation three times with similar parts of chlorinated lime and acetone, wash distillates, shake with sulphuric acid, again wash with water, and solution sodium hydroxide, dehydrate with fused calcium chloride, distil at 150° C. (302° F.), reserving the distillate; or add bromine gradually to solution of potassium hydroxide in alcohol as long as the color is discharged; or act on acetone with potassium (calcium) hypobromite, distil - C3H6O + 3KBrO = C3H3Br3O + 3KOH; C3H3Br3O + KOH = CHBr3 + KC2H3O2. It is a heavy, transparent, colorless, mobile liquid, ethereal odor, penetrating, sweet taste, resembling chloroform, slightly soluble in water; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, benzene, petroleum benzin, fixed or volatile oils, sp. gr. 2.610, slightly volatile, non-inflammable, vapors may be burned; contains 96 p. c, by weight, of bromoform and 4 p. c. of dehydrated alcohol; a fluidrachm represents 360 drops. Test: 1. Evaporate 10 Ml. (Cc.) from porcelain dish on water-bath - residue .006 Gm. Impurities: Acetone, bromides, brominated compounds, free bromine, free acids. Should be kept cool, dark, in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13 - .3 Ml. (Cc.)), on sugar, in capsules, in alcohol, glycerin, or compound tincture of cardamom.
Properties and Uses. - Anaesthetic by inhalation, but has caused alarming symptoms, sufficient to prevent its employment; like chloroform depresses reflex centres of spine, decreasing their functions; produces sleep, insensibility to pain by depressing action upon cerebral centres; depresses vasomotor centre, lessening blood-pressure thus dissipates heat; pulse remains full and strong, as heart and peripheral vagi are seemingly not affected. Chiefly employed internally as a palliative in whooping-cough, decreasing the number and intensity of paroxysms, but does not shorten the disease, also given for hiccough, spasmodic asthma, laryngismus stridulus, cough of phthisis, chronic bronchitis, reflex headache, vertigo.
Poisoning: Laughing intoxication, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of reflex action, coma, collapse, cardiac failure, extreme pallor, fatty degeneration of the viscera. Use external heat, hypodermic ether and strychnine, electricity, which generally return consciousness in 4-6 hours.
Iodoformum. Iodoform. - (Syn., Iodof., Diiodomethyl-iodide, Carboneum Jodatum, Ioduretum Carbonici, Triiodomethane; Fr. Iodure de Formyle, Iodoforme; Ger. Jodoformium, Iodoform.)
Manufacture: Iodoform (iod(ine) + (chlor)oform) is the triiodide of methane (triiodomethane), or methyl, CH4, where 3 hydrogen atoms are removed and replaced by 3 iodine atoms, similar to chlorine in chloroform; obtained practically by the action of iodine upon alcohol (acetone), in the presence of an alkali or alkali carbonate: heat together in a closed vessel iodine, alcohol (acetone), potassium bicarbonate (carbonate, hydroxide) - C2H5OH + 41, + 2KHCO3 = 2CHI3 + 2KI + 3H2O + 2CO2. It is a fine, lemon-yellow powder, lustrous hexagonal crystals; peculiar, very penetrating, persistent odor; unpleasant, slightly sweetish taste, suggestive of iodine; nearly insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol (60), boiling alcohol (16), glycerin (80), chloroform (10), ether (7.5), carbon disulphide (2.8), olive oil (34); solutions neutral; contains 96.69 p. c. of iodine. Tests: 1. Slightly volatile at ordinary temperatures, in boiling water distils slowly with the steam; melts at 115° C. (239° F.) to a brown liquid, decomposes at higher temperature, emitting vapors of iodine. 2. Incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .2 p. c; dry 1 Gm. over sulphuric acid for 24 hours - loss only 1 p. c. Impurities? Acids, alkalies, picric acid, soluble yellow coloring matter. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.), in pill; externally, as ointment, in collodion, alcohol, liniments, suppositories, gauzes, etc., or in dry powder.
Preparations. - 1. Unguentum Iodoformi. Iodoform Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Iodof.; Fr. Pommade d'lodoforme; Ger. Jodoformsalbe.)
Manufacture: 10 p. c. Triturate thoroughly iodoform 10 Gm. with benzoinated lard 90 Gm., gradually added.
Unoff. Preps.: Iodoformum Aromatisatum, 96 p. c, + coumarin 4. Collodium Iodoformi, 5 p. c, + flexible collodion 95. Glycero-gelatinum Iodoformi, 10 p. c, + glycer. gelatin 10, glycerine 15, dist. water 65. Petroxolinum Iodoformi, 3 p. c, + acetone 20, oleic acid 10, eucalyptol 3, liquid petroxolin 64.