1. Aether Aceticvs, Acetic Ether, C2h5c2h3o2, Official 1880-1910

Aether Aceticvs, Acetic Ether, Chcho, Official -. This liquid, composed of 96 p. c, by volume, of ethyl acetate, C2H5C2 H3O2, and 4 p. c. of alcohol with a little water, is obtained by setting aside 1-2 days, in a well-closed flask, alcohol 63 Gm. and sulphuric acid 111 Gm., in order to form ethylsulphuric acid, adding this to a retort containing powdered anhydrous sodium acetate 82 Gm., heating retort on water-bath, condensing vapors in a well-cooled receiver - C2H5OH + H2SO4 = C2H5HSO4 + H2O; C2H5HSO4 + NaC2H3O2 = C2H5C2H3O2 + NaHSO4; purify (from acetic acid, alcohol, water) by shaking with one-third volume of aqueous solution containing 20 p. c. of sodium chloride and 2 p. c. of sodium carbonate (acetic acid), decanting carefully the ethereal layer, shaking with freshly ignited potassium carbonate (water), distilling (alcohol). It is a transparent, colorless liquid, fragrant, refreshing acetous odor, peculiar acetous, burning taste, volatile, inflammable, sp. gr. 0.890, boils at 72° C. (162° F.), soluble in water (7), miscible with alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils. Stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative, acts like ether but has a more pleasant taste; syncope, nervous agitation, colic, flatulence; inhaled for laryngeal and bronchial irritation, nervous cough; externally - same as ether. Should be kept cool, dark, remote from lights or fire, in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, exv-30 (1-2 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Spiritus AEtheris Nitrosi. Spirit of Nitrous Ether, C2H5NO2. - (Syn., Sp. AEth. Nitros., Sweet Spirit of Nitre, Spiritus Nitri Dulcis, Ethyl Nitrite, Spiritus Nitrico-Athereus; Fr. Ether, azoteux alcoolise, Liqueur anodine nitreuse; Ger. Spiritus Atheris nitrosi, Versiisster Salpeter-geist.) An alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrite, C2H5NO2, containing 3.5-4.5 p. c. of ethyl nitrite.

Manufacture: Mix sulphuric acid 40 Ml. (Cc.) with water 120 Ml. (Cc), cool, add diluted alcohol 170 Ml. (Cc), pour into a 1000 Ml. (Cc.) flask, surrounded by ice and water; dissolve sodium nitrite 100 Gm. in water 280 Ml. (Cc), filter, pour into a separatory funnel, let slowly drop into flask containing acid mixture, when reaction complete allow crystals, if any, to settle, decant quickly cold mixture of ethyl nitrite and aqueous solution to the previously cooled separatory funnel, draw off and discard aqueous liquid; wash separated ethyl nitrite with ice-cold water 20 Ml. (Cc), then with ice-cold water 15 Ml. (Cc) containing monohydrated sodium carbonate .6 Gm. (to remove traces of acid), separate ethyl nitrite from aqueous liquid, agitate it in well-stoppered bottle with potassium carbonate 3 Gm.

(to remove traces of water), cool, decant immediately ethyl nitrite into a tared bottle containing alcohol 500 Gm.; ascertain weight of ethyl nitrite by noting increase in weight of tared bottle and contents, add alcohol q. s. to make mixture weigh 22 times the weight of ethyl nitrite added. It is a clear, mobile, volatile, inflammable liquid, pale yellow, faintly greenish-yellow, fragrant, ethereal, pungent odor free from acridity; sharp, burning taste; neutral, but acid by age; sp. gr. 0.823. Tests: 1. Must not effervesce upon adding a crystal of potassium bicarbonate. 2. Immerse a test-tube half-filled with it in a water-bath at 65° C. (149° F.) - when that temperature acquired it boils upon adding a few pieces of broken glass. Impurities: Aldehyde, etc. Should be kept cool, dark, remote from fire, in small, well-stoppered, dark amber-colored bottles. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preparations. - 1. Mistura Glycyrrhizae Composita, 3 p. c.

Unoff. Prep.: Liquor Ethyl Nitritis (Br.), ethyl nitrite 2.5-3 p. c. (+ alcohol 95, glycerin 5), dose, exx-60 (1.3-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Diffusible stimulant, stomachic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, anaesthetic, antispasmodic, antipyretic.

Uses. - Febrile condition to promote sweating, strangury, urinary and kidney affections, flatulence, nausea, nervous agitation, coughing, headache, chronic bronchitis, fevers, in ordinary cold, chronic Brights, cardiac, and pulmonary diseases.

Incompatibles: Potassium iodide, ferric sulphate, mucilage of acacia, tincture of guaiac(um), antipyrine, emulsions, tannin, gallic acid.

Synergists: Diaphoretics, diuretics, antispasmodics, potassium citrate, tincture of aconite, etc.

Amylis Nitris. Amyl Nitrite, C5H11NO2. - (Syn., Amyl. Nitris, Amyl AEther Nitrosus, Amylonitrous Ether; Fr. Azotite d'Amyl, Ether amylozoteux; Ger. Amylium nitrosum, Amylnitrit.) A liquid containing 80 p. c. of amyl (chiefly iso-amyl) nitrite.

I Fatty Series 962

Manufacture: Distil sodium nitrite, amyl alcohol, and diluted sulphuric acid, collecting that vaporizing at 95-100° C. (203-212° F.); wash distillate with ice-cold solution of sodium carbonate (to remove acid), dehydrate with anhydrous potassium carbonate, redistil below 100° C. (212° F.) - 2C5H11OH + 2NaNO2 + H2SO4 = 2C5H11Na2 + Na2SO4 + 2H2O; or distil equal volumes pure amyl alcohol and nitric acid - C5H11OH + HNO3 (deoxidizing into HNO2) - C5H11NO2 + H2O. It is a clear, yellowish liquid, peculiar, ethereal, fruity odor, pungent, aromatic taste, almost insoluble in water, miscible with alcohol, ether, very volatile, inflammable, yellow luminous sooty flame. Tests: 1. 2 drops + 2 drops of water + 2 Ml. (Cc.) sulphuric acid - amyl valerate, recognized by odor on dilution with water. 2. Add few drops to 1 Ml. (Cc.) of ferrous sulphate T. S. + 5 Ml. (Cc.) of diluted hydrochloric acid - greenish-brown. Impurities: Free acid, aldehyde. Should he kept cool, dark, in hermetically sealed glass bulbs, or glass-stoppered vials. Dose, ej-3 (.06-.2 Ml. (Cc.)), cautiously inhaled from a handkerchief in which a glass tear (capsule) containing the amyl nitrite has been crushed. Internally give ess-1 (.03-06 Ml. (Cc.)), dissolved in alcohol.

Properties. - Irritant, sedative, depressant, antispasmodic, anodyne, diuretic. Causes flushed face, rapid and violent heart-beats, throbbing head, headache, giddiness, dilated pupils, increased respiration.

Uses. - Relax spasms, angina pectoris, functional or slight organic heart disease, asthma, convulsions following labor, spasmodic dysmenorrhoea, tetanus, hysterical convulsions, epileptic paroxysms, neuralgia, headache, whooping-cough, hiccough, vomiting of pregnancy, syncope, faintness, hepatic and renal colic, spasm of the glottis, vertigo, pneumonia, intermittent fever, night-sweats, chorea, infantile convulsions, hydrophobia, chordee, exophthalmic goitre, chloroform syncope, seasickness, strychnine-, hydrated chloral-, cocaine-, and severe carbonic acid-poisoning, insomnia from opium-habit. Externally - as an anodyne in headache, toothache, earache, neuralgia, dysmenorrhoea; fetor of gangrene, secretions, and exudations, modified by its solution. Should not be used where there is profuse hemorrhage, or when there is serious organic heart or brain disease (degeneration of arteries).

3. Urea Derivatives.

I Fatty Series 963

Carbonic Acid

I Fatty Series 964

Carbamide

Urea (carbamide) is carbonic acid with its 2 hydroxyls replaced by 2 ammonia residues, NH2, as shown above.

AEhylis Carbamas. Ethyl Carbamate, C3H7NO2. - (Syn., AEthyl. Carbam., Urethanum, Urethane, Ethyl Urethane; Fr. Urethane; Ger. Carbaminsaure Athylester.) The ethyl ester CO(OC2H5)NH2, of carbamic acid.

I Fatty Series 965

Manufacture: Heat together urea nitrate and ethyl alcohol for several hours in a steam digester at 120-130° C. (248-266° F.). The resulting crystalline mass is dissolved in water, shaken out with ether, after recovering ether residue is distilled and crystallized from water. (NH2)2COHNO3 + C2H5OH = CONH2.OC2H5 + NH4NO3. It is in colorless columnar crystals, scales, odorless, cooling, saline taste, soluble in water (.45), alcohol (.8), glycerin (2.5), chloroform (.9), ether (1.5), olive oil (32); melts at 48° C. (119° F.); incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral. Tests: 1. Heat 1 Gm. + sulphuric acid 5 Ml. (Cc.) - decomposition with evolution of carbon dioxide (alcohol and acid ammonium sulphate remaining in solution). 2. Heat 1 Gm. + concentrated potassium hydroxide solution (5) - evolves ammonia gas, recognized by odor. 3. Dissolve .5 Gm. in distilled water (5) + dry sodium carbonate (1) + iodine (.01), warm solution - yellow crystals of iodoform on cooling. Impurities: Urea, chloride, nitrate. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 10-40 (.6-2.6 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic, without unpleasant aftereffects; resembles paraldehyde in action; overdoses depress spinal cord, heart, and respiration, death due to asphyxia; used in nervous or functional insomnia, or that due to mental or physical depression, chronic alcoholism, insanity.