6. Terpenes. Terebene. Terebenum, C10H16. - (Official) See page 73.
Terpin Hydrate. Terpini Hydras, C10H163H2O. - (Official.) See page 72.
7. Phenol Derivatives. Phenol. Acidum Carbolicum, C6H5OH. - (Official.) See page 849. Menthol. Menthol, C10H20O. - (Official.) See page 510.
Salvarsan. Arsenphenol-amin hydrochloride - Arsenobenzol - "606" -3-diamido-4-dihydroxy-l-arseno-benzene hydrochloride, HC1.-NH2.OH,C6H3.As:As.C6H3.OH.NH2.HCl + 2H2O., corresponding to 31.57 p. c. arsenic (As).
Manufacture: By the nitration of p-oxy-phenyl-arsenic acid, and subsequent reduction and condensation of the resulting nitro-phenyl-arsenic acid. It is a yellow, crystalline, hygroscopic powder, unstable in air, soluble in water with acid reaction; solution (1) with solution of sodium hydroxide (2) gives precipitate of free base, as does solution of sodium carbonate, insoluble in excess; aqueous solution not affected by dilute mineral acids, reduces alkaline solution of potassium permanganate when heated, liberating ammonia gas. Dose, gr. 5-9 (.3-.6 Gm.); children, gr. 3-5 (.2-.3 Gm.), mouth or subcutaneously.
Properties and Uses. - Specific for syphilis in all stages; where system repels mercury and iodides. Incipient tabes, early paralysis, epilepsy due to syphilis; spinilum affections - malaria, relapsing fever, frambesia, substitute for arsenic in diseases of skin, nerves, blood; should not be employed in presence of eye troubles.
Neosalvarsari is the more soluble sodium salt, being tolerated better and given in larger quantities. Dose, gr. 9-14 (.6-.9 Gm.). - Inject each gr. 2.5 (.16 Gm.) in exlv (3 Ml. (Cc.)) distilled water - isotonic solution.
Bromol. Tri-bromo-phenol. - Tri-brom-phenol.
Manufacture: Act on phenol with bromine; thus C6H5OH + 6 Br = C6H2Br3OH + 3HBr. It is a colorless crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, fixed or volatile oils, insoluble in water; melts at 95° C. (203° F.); odor unpleasant, taste sweetish, astringent. Dose, gr. 1-8 (.06-5 Gm.); locally 3 p. c. solution in oil, also 12.5 p. c. ointment, or 3-10 p. c, + talcum - dusting-powder. Should not be confounded with bromal.
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic, disinfectant, caustic; tuberculous ulcers, gangrene, diphtheria, cholera infantum.
Aseptol. Ortho-phenol Sulphonic Acid. - Sozolic Acid, Sulpho-(carbol) phenol.
Manufacture: Mix phenol and sulphuric acid at a very low temperature, allow to stand several days, purify this product by converting it into the barium salt and precipitating barium with H2SO4. It is a solution containing 33 p. c. ortho-phenol-sulphonic acid, having a sour taste, acid reaction, and phenol-like odor.
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic. Like phenol, but possesses only one-third of its antiseptic power.
Sozoiodol. Sozoiodolic Acid. - Di - iodo-para-phenyl-sulphonic acid.
Manufacture: Phenol (2) and sulphuric acid (1) are heated together for 3 days at 110° C. (230° F.), forming para-phenol-sulphonic acid, and this is treated with iodine. The compound crystallizes from water in needle-shaped prisms which are soluble in alcohol or water; contains iodine 54 p. c, phenol 20 p. c, sulphur 7 p. c.
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic in 2-3 p. c. solutions. The metallic salts which this acid forms are good substitutes for iodoform, those with sodium being preferred.
Manufacture: Boil together meta-oxy-diphenylamine, sodium hydroxide solution, and sulphur, treat filtered solution with ammonium chloride. It occurs as a yellow, odorless, tasteless powder, soluble in alkalies, insoluble in water; melts at 155° C. (311° F.).
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic. As a substitute for iodoform.
Cresol. Cresylic Acid, C6H4(CH3)OH. - (Official). See page 854.
Manufacture: Benzoyl chloride is allowed to act on the sodium salt of para-cresol. It is in colorless needles, soluble in chloroform, ether, hot water, insoluble in water; melts at 71° C. (160° F.).
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic. The preparations creolin, lysol, saprol, solutol, solveol, sozal, etc., are complex mixtures of the three cresols - ortho, meta, para.
Creolin. Creolinum. - Creolins are antiseptic and disinfectant soluble preparations of cresols (free from phenol) made soluble by means of rosin soap or sulphonation with sulphuric acid. Those with soap are usually reddish-black syrupy liquids, tarry odor, sp. gr. 1.040-1.070, forming clear solutions with alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzin, benzene; the sulphonated creolins hold free cresols in solution, forming milky emulsions with water; sodium salicylate is also a good solvent of cresols. Dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic, sedative; it is powerful but non-irritating. Used as a substitute for phenol, anti-fermentative. Internally, for gastric fermentation, dysentery, and typhoid fever.
Lysol. Lysolum. - Made by reserving distillate from the coal-tar oil that comes over between 190-200° C. (374-392° F.), which is boiled in fat until dissolved, then saponified with alcohol (or alkali). It is a brown, oily-looking, clear liquid, aromatic odor resembling creosote; contains 50 p. c. of cresol; it is soluble in water, forming clear, frothing, saponaceous liquid, also in alcohol, chloroform, or glycerin.