Preparations. - 1. Phenol Liquefactum. Liquefied Phenol. (Syn., Phenol Liq., Liquefied Carbolic Acid, Acidum Carbolicum Lique-factum; Ger. Verflussigte Karbolsaure.)

Manufacture: Liquefy phenol, a convenient quantity, by placing unstoppered container in water-bath, apply heat gradually until crystals melted, transfer liquid to a tared vessel and weigh, then for each 9 Gm. of phenol add 1 Gm. of distilled water, mix thoroughly. It is a colorless liquid, sometimes acquiring a red tint, characteristic, aromatic odor, when undiluted cauterizes and whitens the skin and mucous membrane; miscible with alcohol, ether, glycerin; when diluted with equal volume of glycerin becomes miscible with water, sp. gr. 1.065, boils at 182° C. (360° F.); contains 87 p. c. of pure phenol. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, ess-1 (.03-.00 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Glyceritum Phenolis. Glycerite of Phenol. (Syn., Glycer. Phenol., Glycerite of Carbolic Acid; Br. Glycerin of Phenol; Fr. Glycere d'Acide phenique, Glycerine phenique; Ger. Phenol (Phenyl)-glycerit.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c. Add liquefied phenol 20 Ml. (Cc.) to glycerin 80 Ml. (Cc), mix thoroughly. Dose, eij-5 (.13-3 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Unguentum Phenolis. Ointment of Phenol. (Syn., Ung. Phenol., Ointment of Carbolic Acid; Br. Unguentum Acidi Carbolici, Phenol Ointment; Fr. Pommade (d'Acide) phenique; Ger. Phenolsalbe.)

Manufacture: 2.25 p. c. Add liquefied phenol 2.25 Gm. to melted ointment 97.75 Gm., stir until it begins to congeal.

Unoff. Preps.: Phenol Iodatum, 60 p. c, + iodine 20, glycerin 20. Petroxolinum Phenolis, 5 p. c, + liquid petroxolin 95. Petroxolinum Phenolis Camphoratum, 12 p. c, + camphor 37.5, liquid petroxolin 50. Oleum Phenolatum, 5 p. c, + olive oil 95. Aqua Phenolata, 2.2 p. c, + dist. water 97.8. Nebula Aromatica - phenol, menthol, eucalyptol, oil of cinnamon, oil of clove, each .2 Gm., camphor, benzoic acid, each .3, thymol .1, methyl salicylate .5, light liquid petrolatum q. s. 100. Suppositoria Acidi Carbolici (Br.), each 1 gr. (.06 Gm.). Trochiscus Acidi Carbolici (Br.), each 1/2 gr. (.03 Gm.).

Properties. - Internally - sedative, antifermentative, antipyretic, irritant, poisonous. Externally - antizymotic, antiseptic, disinfectant, deodorant, anaesthetic, irritant caustic. Rapidly destroys animal and vegetable organized ferments, also those organisms causing septic diseases, thereby preventing the formation of their decomposition products. In the stomach is converted into a sulphophenolate, but may circulate as an alkaline phenolate. Diminishes the production of heat and increases its dissipation, renders urine dark.

Uses. - Internally - vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulent dyspepsia, typhoid and intermittent fevers, scarlatina. Externally - in spray, ulcers, gangrene, phthisis, chronic bronchitis, whooping-cough, diphtheria, erysipelas, pain of burns, polypi, venereal abscesses, boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, goitre, hydrocele, sore nipples, granular ophthalmia, otorrhoea, earache, surgical operations, freckles, acne, prurigo, ringworm, warts, bee-stings, sore throat, toothache, rheumatism, bunions, diabetes.

Poisoning: Have burning sensation, collapse, cold, clammy skin, weak pulse, feeble, shallow breathing, urine dark green, white eschars from lips, mouth, etc., vomiting, purging, dizziness, low temperature, contracted pupils, insensibility, comatose, death. Give quick emetic - apomorphine hypodermically - or wash out stomach with alcohol ℥ij-4 (60-120 Ml. (Cc.)) diluted with an equal quantity of water, remove at once by emetic or tube, repeat this every 5-10 minutes for 4 to 8 times; may follow with magnesium or sodium sulphate (℥j; 30 Gm.

+water ℥viij; 240 Ml. (Cc.)), then stimulants, ether, brandy, atropine and strychnine hypodermically, digitalis, coffee, demulcent drinks (no oils or glycerin), opium, apply hot-water bottle, bag, or blankets, etc.

Incompatibles: Alcohol, bromine, soapsuds, albumin, metallic salts, antipyrine, collodion, alkalies, lime, soluble sulphates, atropine.

Synergists: Antiseptics, motor depressants.

Creosotum. Creosote, C7H8O2 + C8H10. - (Gr.

II Aromatic Series 970

flesh, +

II Aromatic Series 971

to preserve - i e., its preserving properties.) (Sy., Creosot.,

Creasote; Fr. Creosote; Ger. Kreosotum, Kreosot.) A mixture of phenols and phenol derivatives, chiefly guaiacol, C7H8O2 and creosol, C8H10O2, obtained during the distillation of wood-tar, preferably that derived from the beech, Fagus sylvatica or Fagus ferruginea, Fagaceae.

Manufacture: The wood-tar is distilled until one-half has passed over, the distillate separating into a light and a heavy oily layer, with an intervening aqueous acid stratum; the light oil contains eupion, etc.; to the heavy oily layer add strong Na2CO3 solution (to remove acid constituents) and then distil the separated oily liquid, that portion of the distillate being collected which is heavier than water; this distillate is treated with KOH solution, sp. gr. 1.12, whereby the creosote is dissolved and eupion separated, now add H2SO4, wash well the precipitated creosote and distil at 200-220° C. (392-428° F.); treatment with potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid is repeated until potassium creosote solution no longer turns brown upon heating in the air. Creosote can be obtained from pyroligneous acid by saturating with sodium sulphate at 70° C. (158° F.), skimming off supernatant oily layer, distilling it and treating distillate with sodium carbonate. It varies in composition according to method and wood used, and consists chiefly of acid methylic ethers of catechol (guaiacol) and its homologues - guaiacol, creosol, phlorol (xylenol), C6H10O, methyl-creosol, C6H12O2, methyl-guaiacol, C8H10O2. It is an almost colorless, yellowish, highly refractive oily liquid, penetrating, smoky odor, burning, caustic taste, not readily brown on exposure to light, slightly soluble in water, miscible with alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils, neutral or faintly acid, sp. gr. 1.073; begins to distil at 195° C. (383° F.), between which and 220° C. (428° F.) 80 p. c. passes over; inflammable, burning with luminous, smoky flame. Tests: 1. Saturated aqueous solution 10 Ml. (Cc), + a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - violet-blue, very transient, clouds, passing rapidly from grayish-green to muddy brown, finally a brown precipitate. 2. Add equal volume of collodion in a dry test-tube - no permanent coagulum (abs. of phenol., and so-called "coal-tar creosote"). 3. 2 Ml. (Cc.) requires 10-18 Ml. (Cc.) of normal sodium hydroxide V. S. to produce clear liquid, add 50 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water - not cloudy (abs. of hydrocarbons and bases). Impurities: Phenol, coal-tar creosote, hydrocarbons and bases, coerulignol and other high-boiling constituents of wood-tar. Should be kept in tightly-stoppered, dark amber-colored bottles. The substance known as coal-tar creosote has a different composition, being impure phenol, made from coal-tar, consequently is more poisonous and should not be substituted for creosote. Dose, ej-10 (.06-6 Ml. (Cc.)).