Preparations. - (Unoff.): Pasta Resorcinolis Fortis: 20 Gm., zinc oxide 20, starch 20, light liquid petrolatum 40. Unguentum Resorcinolis Composition, 6 Gm., zinc oxide, bismuth subnitrate, rectified oil of birch tar, each 6, yellow wax 10, petrolatum 25, anhydrous wool fat 28, glycerin 13. Pasta Resorcinolis Mitis; 10 Gm., + zinc oxide 25, starch 25, light liquid petrolatum 40.

Properties and Uses. - Allied to phenol (carbolic acid); antipyretic, depressant; gastric ulcer, fermentative dyspepsia (an hour after food), vomiting, cholera infantum, diarrhoea, rheumatism, typhoid fever, pneumonia, scarlatina, pleurisy, phthisis, cystitis, vomiting, seasickness. Solution in chronic otitis, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, whooping-cough, chronic aphonia, laryngeal ulcers, gangrene, morbid growths, boils, carbuncles, frostbites, ulcers, fissures, erysipelas, erythema, eczema, psoriasis, herpes, alopecia, chancres, papilloma, myomas, diphtheria; as the basis of dyes - resorcin-blue, -brown, -green, etc.

Poisoning: Same as for phenol (carbolic acid).

Acidum Salicylicum. Salicylic Acid, HC7H5O3, official. - (Syn., Acid. Salicyl., Ortho-oxybenzoic Acid; Fr. Acide salicylique; Ger. Salicylsaure.) This acid (orthohydroxybenzoic) exists naturally in combination in various plants (gaul-theria, betula, etc.) - the best, but generally is prepared synthetically - least expensive, most popular. It may be obtained (1) by fusing salicin with potassium hydroxide; (2) by heating (saponification) oil of gaultheria with potassium hydroxide until all methyl alcohol is given off, decomposing the potassium salicylate with hydrochloric acid; (3) by saturating phenol with sodium hydroxide, producing sodium phenolate (carbolate), C6H5ONa, drying this compound and treating it with carbon dioxide - C6H5ONa + CO2 = NaC6H5CO3: put this in retort, heat to 130° C. (226° F.) and pass into it carbon dioxide, thereby converting it into sodium salicylate, NaC7H5O3, which is dissolved in water, decomposed with hydrochloric acid, drained, washed with cold water, dissolved in boiling water, yielding crystals upon cooling; purify by dissolving in diluted alcohol, decolorizing with animal charcoal, recrystallizing. It is in fine prismatic needles, bulky, crystalline powder; yellowish, pinkish; slight gaultheria-like odor; sweetish, acrid taste; permanent; synthetic - white and odorless; soluble in water (460),

Fig. 470.   Salicylic acid crystal.

Fig. 470. - Salicylic acid crystal.

boiling water (15), alcohol (2.7), chloroform (42), ether (3), benzene (135), oil of turpentine (52); acid reaction, melts at 150° C. (313° F.); contains 99.3 p. c. of HC7H6O3; 138 grains correspond to 169 grains of oil of gaultheria. Tests: 1. Saturated aqueous solution + ferric chloride T. S. - bluish-violet, violet-red. 2. Incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c. 3. Dissolve 1 Gm. in excess of cold sodium carbonate T. S., + ether (1), agitate - evaporated ethereal residue, if any, should be free from phenol odor. Impurities: Iron, phenol, hydrochloric acid, coloring matter, organic substances. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Preparations. - (Unoff.): Glycerogelatinum Acidi Salicylici, 10 p. c, + give, gelatin 20, glycerin 35, dist. water 35. Stili Acidi Salicylici Dilubiles, 10 p. c, + tragacanth 5, starch 30, white dextrin 35, sugar 20, dist. water q. s. Mulla Acidi Salicylici, 10 p. c, + benzoinated suet 80, benzoinated lard, 10. Collodium Salicylici Compositum, 11 Gm., fldext. of cannabis 10, flexible collodion q. s. 100. Pulvis Anti-septicus, .5 p. c, + phenol .1, eucalyptol .1, menthol .1, thymol .1, zinc sulphate 12.5, boric acid 86.6.

Properties. - Antiseptic, antipyretic, antiperiodic, stimulant, diuretic, cardiac depressant. Small doses stimulate the stomach, heart, respiration; large doses derange stomach, causing nausea, vomiting, reduce respiration, heart action, temperature, and arterial tension. By gastro-intestinal secretions converted into sodium salicylate, and as such enters circulation; it is eliminated by kidneys and skin mainly as salicyluric acid.

Uses. - Rheumatic fever, migraine, sciatica, diabetes, cystitis, diphtheria; externally - warts, corns, excess of epidermis.

Salicylism is the result of excessive doses of salicylates, and resembles cinchonism from quinine. It is manifested by headache, deafness, ringing in the ears, sweating, weak pulse and respiration, nausea, delirium, vomiting, etc., and can be prevented by preceding each dose with a small quantity of alcoholic stimulant.

Poisoning: Give emetics, diffusible stimulants, atropine, strychnine, artificial heat. Same as for acetanilid.

Incompatibles: Arterial and cerebral stimulants: alkalies, mineral acids, metallic salts (especially ferric), spirit of nitrous ether.

Synergists: Phenol (carbolic acid) derivatives, anaesthetics, cardiac and cerebral depressants.

Phenylis Salicylas. Phenyl Salicylate, C13H10O3. - (Syn., Phenyl. Salicyl., Salol; Fr. Salicylate de Phenol (Phenyle); Ger. Phenylum salicylicum, Phenylsalicylat, Salolum, Salicylsaurephenylester.)

II Aromatic Series 978

Manufarture: This phenylester of salicylic acid may be obtained by several processes: 1, Treat sodium phenol(ate) + sodium salicylate with a dehydrating agent, as phosphorus oxychloride, or with a slow current of phosgene (carbonyl chloride) - 2C6H5ONa + 2C6H4(OH)-CO2Na + POCI3 = 2C6H4(OH)CO2C6H5 + 3NaCl + PO3Na; dissolve resulting salol in alcohol, crystallize; 2, heat salicylic acid in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide - (1) 2HC7H5O3 + heat = (C6H4CO2H)2O + H2O. (2) (C6H4CO2H)2O + C6H5C7H5O3 + CO2. It is changed first into its anhydride and then into phenyl salicylate; dissolve in alcohol, crystallize. It is a white, crystalline powder, aromatic odor, characteristic taste, soluble in chloroform, ether, benzene, fixed or volatile oils, water (6670), alcohol (6), melts at 42° C. (108° F.). Tests: 1. Alcoholic solution (1 in 20) + diluted ferric chloride T. S. - violet color. 2. Dissolve .2 Gm. in 2 Ml. (Cc.) of hot sodium hydroxide T. S., acidify with hydrochloric acid - salicylic acid separates and phenol odor recognized; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Uncombined phenol or salicylic acid, free acids, chloride, sulphate. Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), pill, capsule, emulsion, or milk.