III Arrangement By Morphology And Anatomy. This system is preeminently adapted for those wishing to become perfectly familiar with the general make-up of the various official plant-parts; the inner structural resemblances and differences of each group-member, as well as the relationship that each group itself sustains to its neighbors. In other words, it is most suited to laboratory work where time is 3 afforded to make cross-sections, stainings, tests, dissections of fibro-vascular bundles, medullary sheaths, rays, etc., thereby readily distinguishing the true and genuine article from that which is false and spurious.

1. Roots, Radices: (a) Monocotyledonous: sarsaparilla. (6) Dicotyledonous. (1) Fleshy: stillingia, sumbul, calumba. (2) Woody: glycyrrhiza, pareira, krameria, ipecac, etc.

2. Rhizomes, Rhizomata: (a) Cryptogamous: aspidium. (6) Monocotyledonous. (1) Without roots: ginger, calamus, triticum. (2) With roots: veratrum viride, cypripedium, iris. (c) Dicotyledonous.

(1) Without roots: sanguinaria, geranium, podophyllum. (2) With roots: valerian, arnica, serpentaria, hydrastis, spigelia, etc.

3. Tubers and Bulbs, Tubera et Bulbi: (a) Monocotyledonous tubers: colchicum, salep, indian turnip. (b) Monocotyledonous tunicated bulbs: squill, garlic, etc. (c) Dicotyledonous tubers: jalap, aconite, corydalis.

4. Twigs and Woods, Stipites et Liana: (a) Twigs: dulcamara, scoparius. (b) Woods: quassia, guaiacum, haematoxylon, etc.

5. Barks, Cortices: (a) Bitter and astringent: cinchona, wild cherry, viburnum. (b) Astringent: white oak, rubus, pomegranate. (c) Bitter, not aromatic: frangula, cascara sagrada, juglans. {d) Acrid or pungent: xanthoxylum, mezereum, euonymus. (e) Mucilaginous: ulmus. (f) Aromatic with oil- or resin-cells: cinnamon, sassafras, cascarilla, etc.

6. Leaves and Leaflets, Folia et Foliola: (a) Entire. (1) Aromatic, glandular, coriaceous: rosemary, pilocarpus, eucalyptus. (2) Not aromatic, glandular, or coriaceous: uva ursi, senna, coca. (6) Toothed or crenate. (1) Coriaceous: chimaphila, buchu, eriodictyon. (2) Not coriaceous: stramonium, hyoscyamus, digitalis, etc.

7. Herbs, Herbae: (a) Cryptogamous: chondrus, cetraria, maidenhair, etc. (b) Dicotyledonous. (1) Petals distinct: Pulsatilla, cheli-donium, scoparius. (2) Petals united: eupatorium, lobelia, peppermint (Labiatae). (3) Petals absent: cannabis.

8. Leafy Tops, Cacumina Summitates: savine, red cedar, thuja, etc.

9. Flowers and Petals, Flores et Petala: (a) Unexpanded: clove, santonica. (6) Expanded. (1) Polypetalous: orange, kousso, rose.

(2) Gamopetalous: Compositae, sambucus, lavender, etc.

10. Fruits, Fructus: (a) Multiple: juniper, hops, fig. (6) Simple. (1) Drupes: phytolacca, cubeb, black pepper, prune. (2) Berries: lemon, capsicum, colocynth. (3) Achenes: barley, lappa, cannabis. (4) Cremocarps: Umbelliferae. (5) Capsules: cassia fistula, cardamom seed, vanilla. (6) Parts of fruit: lemon, tamarind, etc.

11. Seeds, Semina: (a) Monocotyledonous (albuminous): sabadilla, colchicum, areca, etc. (b) Dicotyledonous. (1) Exalbuminous: almond, pumpkin, physostigma, mustard. (2) Albuminous: nux vomica, staphisagria, linseed, nutmeg, stramonium.

12. Drugs with Cellular Structure: (a) Not farinaceous: nutgall, ergot, mace, saffron, lupulin, lycopodium. (b) Farinaceous: starch, tapioca, barley, etc.

13. Drugs without Cellular Structure: (a) Extracts and inspissated juices, Extracta et succi inspissati. (1) Wholly or partially soluble in water or alcohol: guarana, opium, lactucarium, aloes, extract of glycyrrhiza, extract of haematoxylon, catechu, gambir, kino. (2) Insoluble in water or alcohol: gutta-percha, elastica, etc. (6) Sugar, Sacchara: sugar, manna, honey. (c) Gums, Gummata: acacia, traga-canth, etc. (d) Gumresins, Gummi resinae. (1) With volatile oil: asa-fetida, ammoniac, myrrh. (2) Without volatile oil: gamboge, scam-mony. (e) Resins, Resinae. (1) Without benzoic or cinnamic acid: elaterium, mastic, rosin, guaiac. (2) With benzoic and cinnamic acids: benzoin, dragon's blood. (f) Balsams and oleoresins, Bahama et oleoresinae. (1) Without benzoic or cinnamic acid: copaiba, turpentine, Burgundy pitch, tar. (2) With benzoic or cinnamic acid: Peru, Tolu, storax. (g) Volatile oils and camphors, Olea volatilia et camphorae. (1) Volatile oils - arranged in sequence of families (natural orders), containing a volatile portion, elaeoptene, and a less volatile portion, stearoptene, or camphor: terpenes, oxygenated, nitrogenated, sulphurated. (2) Camphors: camphor, thymol, menthol, etc. (h) Fixed oils and waxes, Olea pinguia et cerae. (1) Liquid fats: almond, olive, linseed, codliver, croton, castor oils. (2) Solid fats: oil of theo-broma, lard, suet. (3) Waxes: spermaceti, wax.

14. Drugs of Animal Origin: (a) Animals: cantharides, cochineal, leech. (b) Animal products, tissues, secretions: eggs, isinglass, musk, pepsin, ox-gall. (c) Calcareous skeletons and concretions: coral, cuttlefish bone, oyster-shell.