1. A pair of fine-pointed forceps for handling cover- and watch-glasses, small objects, etc.

Fig. 485.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1113


2. A pair of fine scissors, sharp-pointed and bent, for dividing tissues, etc.

3. A pair of dissecting-needles for teasing tissues apart, etc.

4. A good razor, under side flat, upper slightly concave, edge straight, also strop and hone.

5. A supply of glass slides 3x1 inch, with ground edges, also cover-glasses, square or circular, 3/4 - 7/8 inch, section-lifters, etc.

6. Watch-glasses (flat bottom) in which sections are to be bleached, stained, etc.

Fig. 486.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1114


7. Graduated ruler for drawing and estimating magnifying power.

8. Camera lucida for drawing, the Abbe being the best.

9. Spirit lamp, racks for holding slides and reagent bottles.

10. Pipettes, glass rods, camel's-hair pencils, blotting-paper, chamois.

11. Micrometer adapted either to the eye-piece or stage, or to both.

12. Turn-table with self-centering device, for mounting and finishing slides.

Fig. 487.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1115IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1116


13. Caustic potash - 2-5-10 p. c. solutions, used to dissolve pro-teids, starch, to swell cell-walls, etc.

14. Acetic acid (glacial), 1-2 p. c. solutions, for defining nucleus, clearing cell-contents, in staining, and to distinguish calcium oxalate from calcium carbonate - the latter dissolving with effervescence.

15. Sulphuric acid, 02 p. c. - dissolves starch and cellulose, converting them into dextrin and amyloid, respectively; diluted acid (10 p. c.) - serves to identify crystals in cells. Thus calcium oxalate, carbonate, phosphate, and malate, all are converted into needles of calcium sulphate, while sphere crystals of inulin, resembling calcium phosphate, are dissolved completely.

16. Hydrochloric acid - as a clearing agent, with phenol, thymol, aniline chloride, etc.; also to distinguish calcium oxalate from carbonate (dissolves latter with effervescence, the former slowly without

Fig. 488.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1117

Camera lucida (brass mounted).

Fig. 489.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1118

Ocular micrometer.

effervescence); also to modify overstained sections from haematoxylin, carmine, and aniline solutions.

17. Nitric acid, 68 p. c. - causes protoplasm to shrink from cell-wall, and when ammonia is added afterward we have the middle lamella stained yellow; a 30 p. c. solution swells and finally dissolves amyloid.

18. Chromic acid (strong solution) - separates cells of thick-walled tissue, dissolving easily the middle lamella, finally the entire cell; a 1/2-l p. c. solution fixes cell-contents of tissues by soaking in it 24 hours, then wash and stain.

19. Compound iodine solution (tincture iodine + potassium iodide) stains starch blue, proteids yellowish-brown, lignified cell-walls deep brown, kills protoplasm without dissolving it, is a fixing agent, and with H2SO4 becomes a test for cellulose.

20. Chlor-zinc-iodine (Schulze's solution) - colors cellulose blue, lignified and cutinized tissues brown, starch is turned blue, swells and dissolves; swells cells-walls and stains protoplasmic threads brown, therefore is used in studying continuity of protoplasm from cell to cell.

21. Aniline chloride, colorless, 5 p. c. alcoholic solution, or saturated aqueous solution + sufficient HC1 to acidify - stains lignified tissues deep yellow, but does not affect cellulose and cutinized tissues.

Fig. 490.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1119

Sectional view of ocular micrometer.

22. Fehling's solution - with grape-sugar a red color is obtained. If cane-sugar be present, a bluish or greenish color appears.

23. Ammonio-ferric alum - with tissues containing tannin gives bluish-black or greenish-black precipitate.

24. Silver nitrate, 2-3 p. c. solution - develops the laminae in starch-grains and in thick-walled cells.

Fig. 491.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1120


25. Diphenylamine solution - turns tissues blue that contain nitrates.

26. Sulphuric ether - dissolves out oils, resins, fats, etc.

27. Alcohol - preserves tissue, dissolves chlorophyll, coloring-agents, resins, oils; also bleaches.

Fig. 492.

IV Microscope Accessory Apparatus And Reagents 1121


28. Phenol (carbolic acid) - useful clearing agent, can mount directly; from this solution.

29. Glycerin - for clearing sections, preserving tissues for temporary or permanent mounting.

30. Canada balsam - for permanent mounting.