Pterocarpus Marsupium,

Roxburgh.

The spontaneously dried juice.

Habitat. E. India, in forests; C. and S. India (Malabar), Ceylon, Bengal.

Syn. Gummi (Resina) Kino, Vengay, Bastard Teak, Bija, Amboyna Kino Tree; Br. Kino, Kino Eucalypti (Eucalyptus (Red) Gum); Fr. Kino de l'lnde; Ger. Kino.

Mar-su'pi-um. L. marsupium, a pouch, bag, purse - i. e., shape of the fruit.

Ki'no. E. India name as given the extract.

Plant. - Large tree, 18-24 M. (60-80°) high, .6-1 M. (2-3°) thick, many spreading branches; bark brownish-gray, internally red and fibrous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, deciduous; leaflets 5-7, alternate, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, obovate, emarginate, coriaceous; flowers May-June, pale yellow; fruit indehiscent pod, orbicular, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-l 3/5') broad; seed 1, kidney-shaped. Juice (kino), in small, brittle, angular fragments, 1-15 Mm. (1/25-3/5') broad, reddish-brown, blackish; crushed upon slide and under microscope - translucent, glass-like, conchoidal surface, the thinner pieces yellowish-red, brownish-red, and often marked by nearly parallel, curved and straight lines; inodorous; taste very astringent; when masticated colors saliva pinkish. Powder, dark brick-red; microscopically - with water fragments deep, rich red, rounded and separated into innumerable small granules associated with rod-shaped bacteria; mounted in alcohol fragments deep red at first, then mostly dissolve, leaving small, colorless granules and indistinguishable cellular fragments. Tests: 1. Add boiling water, which dissolves at least 40 p. c, cool, filtrate faintly acid; with ferric chloride T. S. - dark green precipitate; with alkalies - reddish-violet color; alcoholic extractive 45 p. c; moisture 12 p. c. Solvents: alcohol, to the extent of 90 p. c.; boiling water to the extent of 40-80 p. c.; alkalies, with impairment of astringency. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Inferior juices, catechu, dragon's blood (insoluble in water), etc.

Commercial. - Plant, called natively Buja, is prized for fine timber and juice, the privilege of tapping trees for the latter being granted by the government to highest bidders; it is collected to some extent the entire year, but chiefly during inflorescence, dry season, February-March (when it is better and easier dried), by cutting into the tree-trunk to the cambium a perpendicular incision and lateral feeders; the juice, resembling currant-jelly, exudes freely into clay cups, bamboo-joints, etc., placed at the bottom of main incision, when it is dried in the sun and air (inspissated) or boiled to the consistency of a thick extract, occasionally skimming off impurities, then poured into shallow-pans to dry until crumbly (half-inch layer requiring a week) and packed in wooden boxes for market. Trees yield most at night and when small often are killed by excessive bleeding, which may be averted by resting alternate years; each produces about 24 ounces (.7 Kg.) that upon evaporation becomes half as much kino. All liquid preparations tend to gelatinize and lose astringency, consequently should be kept in small bottles and seldom opened; the menstruum making a permanent solution is alcohol 65, water 20, glycerin 15

Fig. 197.   Pterocarpus Marsupium (Kino): A, flowering twig; 1, 2, 3, parts of the flower; 4, stamens; 5, pistil; 6, fruit; 7, vertical section of winged fruit.

Fig. 197. - Pterocarpus Marsupium (Kino): A, flowering twig; 1, 2, 3, parts of the flower; 4, stamens; 5, pistil; 6, fruit; 7, vertical section of winged fruit.

volumes, although alcohol 50, water 25, glycerin 25 usually gives satisfaction. There are several varieties: 1, Malabar (E. India), official, described above, rarely found on the market; 2, African (Gambia - P. erina'ceus), similar to preceding, not in our market but common in England; contains tannin 50-60 p. c.; 3, Bengal (Palas - Bu'tea frondo'sa) in transparent ruby-red tears, fragments, often with leaf-vein impressions, brittle, not adhesive on mastication, yields pyrocatechin on dry distillation, one-third to one-half soluble in hot alcohol, the remainder being mucilaginous matter; contains tannin 15-35 p. c; 4, Australian (Botany Bay - Eucalyptus rostra'ta, E. amygdalina, E. resinif'er, and other species of Myrtaceae), not very brittle, adheres to teeth, tinges saliva red, soluble in alcohol, 80-90 p. c., in water, lessening with age; furnishes much of the present commercial kino; contains tannin 45-50 p. c.; 5, W. India (Jamaica, Caracas - Coccol'oba uvif'era, Polygonaceae), obtained by boiling the violet-brown wood and hark of the large tree, evaporating the decoction; resembles official but has brownish tint, less glossy, bitter, soluble in water, alcohol (90 p. c.); contains tannin 70 p. c.

Constituents. - Kino-tannic acid, C18H18O8, 40-80 p. c., Kino-red, C28H22O11, Pyrocatechin (pyrocatechuic acid, catechol), C6H6O2, Kinoin, C14H12O6, gum, ash 1.3-3 p. c.

Kino-tannic Acid. - Similar to catechuic acid, always mixed with coloring matter and pectin in extraction; with ferric salts - greenish-black, with ferrous salts in neutral solutions - violet color.

Kino-red. - Obtained by exposing cold aqueous solution to the air, when red precipitate slowly forms, hastened by heating, or heat kinoin to 130° C. (266° F.); it is amorphous, tasteless, nearly insoluble in water, and is the anhydride of kinoin: 2C14H12O6 - H2O = C28H22O11.

Pyrocatechin. - Obtained by treating kino with ether, or the product of dry distillation of kino contains much of it, which may be purified by resublimation; soluble in ether, water.

Kinoin. - Boil kino with diluted hydrochloric acid, kino-red immediately separates, now agitate clear solution with ether; occurs in white crystals, slightly soluble in ether, cold water, red with ferric chloride.

Preparations. - 1. Tinctura Kino. Tincture of Kino. (Syn., Tr. Kino; Fr. Teinture de Kino; Ger. Kinotinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Agitate thoroughly in a flask 10 Gm. with boiling water 50 Ml. (Cc.), heat for 1 hour on water-bath containing boiling water, shaking frequently, cool, add recently boiled water q. s. 50 Ml. (Cc.), then add alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.), stopper flask, set aside in cool place for 24 hours, decant through cheesecloth. Should be kept cool, dark, in small, tightly-corked bottles. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Compound Tincture with Opium, 20 p. c. (tincture), + tincture of opium 10 p. c. Fluidextract, dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)). Gargles. Infusion, 5 p. c., dose, ℥ss-l (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)). Pulvis Kino Compositus (Br.), 75 p. c. (+ opium 5, cinnamon 20), dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.). Kino Eucalypti (Eucalypti Gummi - Br.), red exudation from E. rostra'ta, +, dose, gr. 2-5 (.13 - .3 Gm.).

Owing to gum (pectin) coagulating, the liquid preparations are very unstable, therefore catechu is used often in its stead with equally good results.

Properties. - Astringent, tonic, haemostatic; similar to but less powerful than tannin; locally inferior to other astringents.

Uses. - Diarrhoea, pyrosis, menorrhagia, dysentery, leucorrhoea, ulcers, sore throat, manufacture of wines. Useful in dyeing and tanning, but rather too expensive.

Incompatibles: Aqueous solution is precipitated by gelatin, soluble salts of iron, silver, lead, antimony, mercuric chloride, sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids.