Mnii+iv = 54.9

The element manganese (L. corrupt, of magnes, from resemblance to the magnet, or from magnesia transposed, as both were confounded until 1740) is not of great importance in medicine; it occurs natively in considerable quantities as black oxide, MnO2 (pyrolusite, hausman-nite, braunite), as sesquioxide, Mn2O3, as carbonate, MnCO3; from this latter the metal may be obtained by heating with charcoal - MnCO3 + 2C = Mn + 3CO. It resembles iron very closely, but oxidizes easier, is harder and more brittle; sp. gr. 7.20; gives only one official salt.

Tests for Manganese Salts: 1. With ammonium sulphide get flesh-colored precipitate. 2. Na2CO3 or K2CO3 gives white precipitate insoluble in excess of ammonium carbonate. 3. Borax bead is violet or amethyst. 4. Heated with Na2CO3 + NaNO3 get bluish-green mass, forming with water a green solution which turns red with an acid.

Mangani Dioxidum Prsecipitatum. Precipitated Manganese Dioxide. - (Syn., Mangan. Diox. Praec, Mangani Dioxidum; Fr. Bioxyde (Per-oxyde) de Manganese precipitate; Ger. Pracipitistes Mangandioxyd.)

Manufacture: Dissolve manganese sulphate 50 Gm. in 1000 Ml (Cc.) distilled water; add to ammonia water 250 Ml. (Cc.) an equal volume distilled water, mix this with solution of hydrogen dioxide 250 Ml. (Cc), previously diluted with equal volume distilled water, pour this slowly into solution of manganese sulphate, let stand an hour, frequently stirring, wash precipitate with hot distilled water, drain, dry. It is a heavy, very fine, black powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol; heating with hydrochloric acid converts it into manganous chloride, with evolution of chlorine; at red heat gives off oxygen, being converted into reddish-brown manganous manganic oxide, Mn3O4; contains chiefly manganese dioxide, with small amounts of other oxides of manganese, corresponding to 80 p. c. of the salt, MnO2. Tests: 1. Boil .1 Gm. with 2 drops of hydrochloric acid. + lead peroxide .5 Gm. + nitric acid 5 Ml. (Cc.), + distilled watei 5 Ml. (Cc.) - liquid reddish-violet color. Impurities: Insoluble substances. Dose, gr. 3-10 (.2-6 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Tonic, alterative, after prolonged usage may act as cumulative poison, causing staggering, paraplegia; good in syphilis, chlorosis, scurvy, skin diseases, itch, porrigo, stomach pains, pyrosis, gastralgia, simple ulcers. Acts solely as a coating to stomach, like bismuth salts.

Allied Salts:

1. Mangani Dioxidum. Manganese Dioxide, MnO2, official 1860-1900. - This is the native crude manganese dioxide, containing 66 p. c. of pure dioxide, MnO2; it is a heavy, grayish-black, gritty powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol; soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. It is important: 1, for liberating chlorine from HC1 or NaCl in making bleaching-powder, mercuric chloride, etc.; 2, for oxygen in laboratory work; 3, for furnishing manganese salts; 4, for black glazing to pottery; 5, for freeing glass from iron coloration; 6, for mixing with iron to furnish the best steel; 7, in veterinary practice.

2. Mangani Sulphas. Manganese Sulphate, MnSO4 + 4H2O, official 1860-1910. - Obtained by forming thin magma of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid, boiling, evaporating to dryness, heating to redness (to decompose iron sulphate), cooling, treating with water, evaporating filtrate to crystallization. It is in pale rose-colored, translucent, tetrahedral prisms, odorless, slightly efflorescent, bitter, astringent taste, soluble in water (1), insoluble in alcohol; contains 38 p. c. of water, 62-68 p. c. of pure salt. Impurities: Heavy metals, iron, zinc, magnesium, salts of alkalies. Tonic, cholagogue, styptic, large doses sedative to nerves and circulation, poisonous; no longer considered a good substitute for iron in chlorosis, anaemia, impoverished system; ointment an irritant to enlarged glands, swollen joints, etc. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, tonic, gr. 3-10 (.2-6 Gm.), pill, solution.

3. Mangani Hypophosphis. Manganese Hypophosphite, Mn(PH2-O2)2 + H2O, official 1900-1910. - Obtained by mixing calcium hypo-phosphite (1) in solution, with manganese sulphate (1.31) in solution, stirring, setting in warm place for calcium sulphate to subside, filtering, evaporating, crystallizing. It is a pink granular or crystalline powder, odorless, nearly tasteless, permanent, soluble in water (6.6), nearly insoluble in alcohol; contains 97 p. c. of pure salt. Impurities: Arsenic, calcium, sulphate, carbonate, phosphate. Used similar to calcium hypophosphite. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 3-10 (.2-.6 Gm.).

4. Mangani Citras Solubilis. Soluble Manganese Citrate, Mn3-(C6H5O7)2. - Manganous citrate rendered soluble by sodium citrate. It is a yellowish, pinkish-white powder, translucent scales, odorless, bitter, astringent; soluble in water (4); contains 49-51 p. c. of pure salt.

5. Mangani Glycerophosphas Solubilis. Soluble Manganese Glycerophosphate, MnC3H7PO6. - Manganese glycerophosphate rendered soluble by citric acid. It is a yellowish, pinkish-white powder, odorless, acid taste; soluble in water (4); contains 70-75 p. c. of pure salt.