1. Cas'Tor Fi'Ber, Castoreum, Castor, Beaver

Cas'Tor Fi'Ber, Castoreum, Castor, Beaver. Rodentia. The dried preputial follicles, and their secretion, obtained from the male and female animal, separated from the frequently attached shorter and smaller oil sacs, official 1820-1880; Canada, Russia. Beaver is about .6-.8 M. (2-2 1/2°) long; tail 25-30 Cm. (10-12') long, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') wide, flattened, hairy at base, scaly at end; head like a rat's; has no canines, but 2 incisors, 4 molars all around for gnawing; hair brownish. The American or Canadian is smaller, with darker fur, follicles weigh

1-4 ounces (.03-12 Kg.), and are used mostly. Russian or Siberian has follicles pyriform, 2-8 ounces (.06-.24 Kg.); odor more agreeable, 7.5 Cm. (3') long, club-shaped, in pairs, wrinkled, brown; contents brown, hard, friable. Alcohol dissolves one-half, giving brown tincture, turbid on adding water, clarified by ammonia; contains volatile oil, having phenol 1-2 p. c, resinous substance (bitter) 14-58 p. c, castorin, salicin, osmazone, urates, benzoates, cholesterin, ash 3.5 p. c. Used as stimulant, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, for hysteria, fevers, epilepsy, typhoid, amenorrhoea; in decoction, tincture. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 (Gm.). It is weaker than musk, and presents no advantage over valerian, camphor, ammonia, ether, etc. It is adulterated with blood, rosins, minerals, calcium carbonate, goat scrotums, etc., sometimes to 50 p. c. The oil-sacs furnish our once official Axungia Castoris.

2. Cer'Vus El'Aphus, Cornu Cervi, Stag's Horn, Harts Horn

Cer'Vus El'Aphus, Cornu Cervi, Stag's Horn, Harts Horn. The horn of the stag, a species of deer, official 1820-1840. The hard, bony horns yield by boiling with water a transparent, colorless, inodorous jelly, and then incineration (of cleaned bones) gives pure calcium phosphate, which was mixed with antimony sulphuret and subjected to white heat, yielding antimony oxide and calcium phosphate; as such was a component of our (once official) first-made antimonial or James' powder.

3. Antil'Ope Dor'Cas

Antil'Ope Dor'Cas. N. Africa. Deer-like, ruminant animal, whose globular excrements have strong musk-odor, for which it is used in perfumery. Hy'rax capen'sis, Hyraceum, S. Africa. The dry excrements of the badger or klipdas, a mammal .5 M. (18') long, black. When hot has castor oil odor; partly soluble in water, less so in alcohol, ether.

4. Civet'Ta And Zib'Ethum, Civet

Civet'Ta And Zib'Ethum, Civet. Animal .6-1 M. (2-3°) long, .3 M. (1 °) high, unctuous secretion in the pouch between anus and genitals of both sexes of Viver'ra Civet'ta and V. Zib'etha, Africa, S. Asia. These are grown for secretions, which are removed by ladles; it is at first yellow, then dark brown. Like musk medicinally, but mostly used in perfumery.