Properties and Uses. - Anaesthetic, stimulant, produces mental disturbances with hilarity, and as it raises arterial tension (pressure) should not be given to those having fatty heart or atheroma of the bloodvessels (producing apoplexy, heart failure); anaesthesia due to influence on central nervous system and asphyxiation. Chiefly in dentistry for extracting teeth, minor operations; major surgery to produce primary anaesthesia to be followed immediately by ether or chloroform. For convenience gas compressed in metal (steel) cylinders; safest anaesthetic, death-rate being only 1 in 500,000.

Acidum Nitricum. Nitric Acid, HNO3. - (Syn., Acid. Nitric, Acidum Nitri (Azoticum), Spiritus Nitri Acidus, Spirit of Nitre, Aqua Fortis; Fr. Acide nitrique (azotique); Ger. Salpetersaure.) An aqueous solution containing 67-69 p. c. of HNO3.

Manufacture: It is obtained by combining nitrogen pentoxide with water - N2O6 + H2O = 2HNO3; or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid, with heat - NaNO3+H2SO4 = HNO3 + NaHSO4, or 2NaNO3 + H2SO4 = 2HNO3 + Na2SO4. It is a fuming, caustic, corrosive liquid; peculiar, suffocating odor; strongly acid taste and reaction, even if highly diluted; sp. gr. 1.403; volatile at 110° C. (230° F.); dissolves copper, mercury, silver, and other metals with brownish-red fumes; stains woolen fabrics and animal tissues bright yellow. Tests: 1. Evaporate 20 Ml. ((C) - residue .003 Gm. (abs. of non-volatile substances). 2. Shake with distilled water (3) + little chloroform - latter colorless (abs. of bromine, iodine), even after adding metallic tin (abs. of bromic, iodic acids). 3. With distilled water (10) + barium chloride T. S. - no precipitate (abs. of sulphuric acid); with silver nitrate T. S. - no precipitate (abs. of hydrochloric acid). Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, bromine, iodine, bromic, hydrochloric, iodic, sulphuric acids, nonvolatile substances. Should be kept dark, in dark, amber-colored, glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13 - .3 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted. Preparations. - 1. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum. Nitrohydro-chloric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Nitrohydrochl., Nitromuriatic Acid, Aqua Regia (Regis); Fr. Acide Chloro(azotique)-nitreux, Eau regale; Ger. Acidum Chloro-nitrosum, Saltpetersalzsaure, Konigswasser.)

Manufacture: Mix in capacious glass vessel nitric acid 18 Ml. (Cc), hydrochloric acid 82 Ml. (Cc); allow effervescence to cease. The two acids act chemically upon each other, forming a strong aqueous, solution containing hydrochloric, nitric acids, nitrosyl chloride, chlorine, the latter in a free state aiding greatly the dissolving power - HNO3 + 3HC1 = H2O + NOC1 + Cl2; the nitrosyl chloride, NOC1, is a yellowish gas, becoming red at - 5° C. (23° F.). It is a golden-yellow, fuming, corrosive liquid; strong chlorine odor; intensely acid taste and reaction, bleaching litmus; readily dissolves gold leaf; evaporate 10 Ml. (Cc) - residue .0035 Gm.; contains 38.5 p. c of absolute acid. Should only be dispensed when 1 drop added to 1 Ml. (Cc.) of aqueous solution of potassium iodide immediately liberates iodine, and should be kept cool, in half-filled, glass-stoppered, dark amber-colored bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted.

Prep.: 1. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum. Diluted Nitro-hydrochloric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Nitrohydrochl. Dil., Diluted Nitromuriatic Acid; Fr. Acide Chlorazotique dilue; Ger. Ver-dunnte Saltpetersalzsaure.) Manufacture: Mix in capacious glass vessel nitric acid 10 Ml. (Cc), hydrochloric acid 45.5 Ml. (Cc), and, after effervescence ceases, distilled water 194.5 Ml. (Cc). It is a colorless, pale yellowish liquid, faint odor of chlorine, strongly acid taste and reaction, bleaching litmus; evaporate 20 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .0015 Gm.; it is a diluted aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, nitrosyl chloride, chlorine - 8.5 p. c of absolute acid. Should only be dispensed when 5 drops added to 1 Ml. (Cc.) of aqueous solution to potassium iodide immediately liberates iodine, and should be kept cool, in dark amber-colored, glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted. Unoff. Prep.: Acidum Nitricum Dilutum, U. S. P. 1900, 10 p. c (nitric acid 100 Gm., distilled water 580 Gm.), dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted.

Properties. - Tonic, antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue, escharotic; stains yellow.

Uses. - Intestinal indigestion with diarrhoea, syphilis, chronic hepatitis, intermittents, jaundice, scrofula, dysentery, whooping-cough, bronchitis, to allay thirst in fever, diabetes, diminishes phosphatic deposits in urine, gravel. Externally to destroy chancres, warts, hemorrhoids, phagedenic ulcers, bites of snakes and rabid dogs, tests for albumin in urine. As a lotion for ulcers, chilblains, and antiseptic purposes. Checks secretion of hydrochloric acid if given before meals.

Poisoning: Have burning acute pain over the entire affected tract, hiccough, nausea, vomiting (dark-colored mucous shreds, blood, etc.), swollen, tender cold abdomen, feeble pulse, clammy skin, difficult respiration, intense thirst; nearly always fatal. Give antidotes (alkaline solutions of sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, magnesium oxide, chalk), soap, mucilaginous drinks, almond or olive oil, emollient fomentations, morphine, stimulants, heat, avoid use of pump.

Inconipatibles: Alcohol, alkalies, carbonates, oxides, ferrous sulphate, lead acetate.