Niii = 14.

The element nitrogen (Gr.

Nitrogen 874

L. nitrum, niter, +

Nitrogen 875

produced from or generator or) is or considerable importance in medicine, owing to its ready combination with hydrogen and oxygen, thus forming several useful official compounds.

Aqua Ammoniae. Ammonia Water, NH4OH. - (Syn., Aq. Ammon., Spirit of Hartshorn; Br. Liquor Ammoniae, Spiritus Salis Ammoniaci Causticus, Ammonia Aqua Soluta; Fr. Ammoniaque liquide, Eau (Solution, Liqueur) d'Ammoniaque; Ger. Liquor Ammonii caustici, Ammoniakflussigkeit, Salmiakgeist, Atzammoniak.) An aqueous solution of ammonia, NH3 containing 9.5-10.5 p. c, by weight, of gaseous ammonia.

Manufacture: Heat gradually ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide mixed together, and pass the gas thus generated into water - 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 = CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3. It is a colorless transparent liquid, pungent characteristic odor, caustic, alkaline taste and reaction; sp. gr. 0.958. Tests: 1. Produces dense white fumes in the presence of hydrochloric acid. 2. Evaporate 25 Ml. (Cc.) to dryness - residue .005 Gm. Impurities: Heavy metals, oxidizable and empyreumatic substances. Should be kept cool in glass-stoppered bottles made of hard glass free from lead, and, deteriorating with age, must be tested frequently. Dose,e ex-20 (.6-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Preparations. - 1. Linimentum Ammoniae. Ammonia Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Ammon., Volatile Liniment, Hartshorn Liniment; Fr. Liniment (Savon) ammoniacal (volatil); Ger. Fluchtiges Liniment, Fluchtige Salbe.)

Manufacture: 25 p. c. Agitate ammonia water 25 Ml. (Cc.) with sesame oil 75 Ml. (Cc.) until a uniform mixture; should not be dispensed unless reasonably fresh; used externally.

2. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus. Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia. (Syn., Sp. Ammon. Arom., Spiritus Ammoniae Compositus, Spirit of Sal Volatile; Fr. Alcoolat ammoniacal aromatique; Ger. Aromatischer Ammoniakgeist.)

Manufacture: To ammonia water 9 Ml. (Cc.) add distilled water 14 Ml. (Cc.), then ammonium carbonate 3.4 Gm.; to alcohol 70 Ml. (Cc.) add oil of lemon 1 Ml. (Cc), oil of lavender .1 Ml. (Cc), oil of myristica .1 Ml. (Cc), then the ammonium carbonate solution, and finally distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc), set aside 24 hours, filter. It is a nearly colorless liquid when fresh, but gradually yellowish with age; pungent odor and taste of ammonia; sp. gr. 0.900. Should be kept cool, in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, ex-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted.

Preps.: 1. Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata. Guaiac 20 Gm., aromatic spirit of ammonia q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc). 2. Tinctura Valeriana Ammoniata. Valerian 20 Gm., aromatic spirit of ammonia q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc).

Unoff. Preps.: Lotio Ammoniacalis Camphorata, 6 p. c, + spirit camphor 1, sodium chloride 6, water q. s. 100. Spiritus Ammoniae Anisatus, 3 p. c. (anethol), ammonia water 20, alcohol q. s. 100.

Properties. - Stimulant, antacid, irritant, rubefacient, caustic, corrosive poison; before meals increases, but after neutralizes gastric juice.

Uses. - Heartburn, nauseating headache, stimulates circulation and respiration, paralyzes the heart muscle. It is oxidized in the system, forming nitric acid, which is eliminated by kidneys; externally in rheumatism, neuralgia, congestion of larynx, throat, bowels, amenorrhoea, burns, frost-bite, vulvar pruritus, syncope, bronchitis, hoarseness, acidity, whooping-cough, stings (of bees, mosquitoes, spiders, wasps, etc); antidote to chlorine, bromine, hydrocyanic acid, alcoholic intoxication. Mixed with oil should be applied by gentle friction.

Poisoning: Have burning pain from mouth to stomach; difficult deglutition, vomiting and purging of blood and mucus, cold and clammy skin, feeble pulse, collapse, sense of suffocation, convulsions, stupor, coma. Give vegetable acids (vinegar, lemon juice), oil, demulcents, stimulants (atropine, strychnine, digitalis, brandy, etc.), opium for the pain.

Synergists: Cardiac and diffusible stimulants, antispasmodics, capsicum, cantharides, counter-irritants.

Aqua Ammoniae Fortior. Stronger Ammonia Water, NH4OH. - (Syn., Aq. Ammon. Fort., Br. Liquor Ammoniaee Fortis; Fr. Eau d'Ammoniaque forte; Ger. Starker Salmiakgeist.) An aqueous solution of ammonia (NH3), containing 27-29 p. c, by weight, of gaseous ammonia.

Manufacture: Same as aqua ammoniae, only much more ammonia (gas) is required to give the 27-29 p. c saturation. It is a colorless, transparent liquid, excessively pungent characteristic odor, very caustic alkaline taste and reaction; sp. gr. 0.897; diluted with distilled water (2) - responds to tests for identity and purity of aqua ammoniae. Should be kept cool in partly filled, strong glass-stoppered bottles made of hard glass free from lead, handled with great caution (never tasted unless greatly diluted), and, deteriorating with age, must be tested frequently. Dose, eiij-6 (.2-4 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Preparation. - (Unoff.): Spiritus Ammonia, 10 p. c. (condensing gas in alcohol instead of water), dose, ex-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Properties and Uses. - Too strong for internal use unless largely diluted. Externally - rubefacient; should be mixed with spirit of camphor, oil of rosemary, etc., for rheumatism, neuralgia, spasmodic and inflammatory affections. Spirit is stimulant, antispasmodic; given in hysteria, flatulent colic, nervous debility, nauseating headache.

Nitrogenii Monoxidum. Nitrogen Monoxide, N2O. - (Syn., Nitrogen Monox., Nitrous Oxide, Laughing Gas; Fr. Oxyde nitreux, Pro-toxyde d'azote; Ger. Stickstoffoxydul, Lachgas.)

Manufacture: Heat gradually pure ammonium nitrate (without chloride) to 200-240° C. (392-464° F.) - NH4NO3 + heat = 2H2O + N2O - pass gas through solution of ferrous sulphate to remove nitric oxide, and solution of potassium hydroxide to neutralize acids and chlorine; higher temperature produces white fumes (nitrous oxide, nitrogen, ammonia), when heat should be reduced. It is a colorless gas, slight characteristic odor, sweetish taste, non-inflammable, supports combustion of many substances; by cold and pressure condensed into liquid, then into crystals, soluble in water (1 vol. dissolving 1.3 vols.), alcohol, volatile and fixed oils. Impurities: Carbon dioxide, halogens, acids, bases, reducing substances.