1. Oleum Squali, Shark Oil

Oleum Squali, Shark Oil. From the liver of the shark - Squa'lus Carcha'rias; light yellow, limpid at - 6° C. (21.2° F.).

2. Oleum Rajae, Ray Oil, Skate Oil

Oleum Rajae, Ray Oil, Skate Oil. From livers of Ra'ja Ba'tis. France, Belgium; pale yellow, said to contain more iodine than cod liver oil.

3. Oleum Ceti, Sperm Oil

Oleum Ceti, Sperm Oil. From Physeter macrocephalus; yellowish, in cold deposits spermaceti and stearin.

4. Oleum Balanae, Whale Oil

Oleum Balanae, Whale Oil. From Balae'na mystice'tus and B. austra'lis; deposits at 10° C. (50° F.).

Allied Animals and Products:

1. Ichthyocolla, Isinglass

Ichthyocolla, Isinglass. The swimming-bladder of Acipen'ser Hu'so, and other species, official 1820-1900. Sturiones. Large fish, 4-4.5 M. (12-15°) long, weighing 1,000 pounds (455 Kg.) or more, and ranking with whales as regal or royal fishes. Swimming-bladder (isinglass) occurs in separate sheets or rolled, horny, pearly, whitish or yellowish, semi-transparent, iridescent, inodorous, insipid; 1 part + 24 boiling water forms on cooling a transparent jelly. This swimming-bladder ("sound") is a membranous bag (in front of the abdomen of most fishes) containing oxygen and nitrogen in various proportions, which enables the fish, by contracting or expanding, to lower or raise themselves in water; this bag consists of 3 coats: 2 inner

(thin, delicate), 1 outer (tough, silvery-white); this latter is scraped off, discarded, and the inner bladder dried by (1) stretching into sheets, leaf isinglass, (2) folding several together, book isinglass, or (3) folding up around pegs, long or short staple isinglass; contains gelatin (glutin), insoluble membrane 2-30 p. c., ash .5 p. c.; solvents: boiling water, boiling diluted alcohol. Emplastrum Ichthyocollae (Court Plaster) - Dissolve isinglass 10 Gm. in hot water q. s. 120 Gm.; with brush spread half of this in successive layers upon taffeta (stretched), add to other half alcohol 40 Gm., glycerin 1, apply as before, coat reverse side with tincture of benzoin. Nutritious, emollient, protective. Used in bowel derangements (children), mixed with farinaceous food, in clarifying liquors, to impart lustre to fabrics, as a test for tannin; plaster for cuts, abrasions, skin eruptions. Dose, ad libitum; Coxe's, Nelson's, as dietetic.

2. American Isinglass

American Isinglass. Sounds of Ga'dus merluc'cius (Hake) and -Otol'ithus rega'lis (Weakfish), dried in thin sheets or ribbons.

3. Purse Or Pipe Isinglass

Purse Or Pipe Isinglass. Dried fish-sounds without being cut open. Used sometimes in the arts as isinglass.

4. Japanese Or Chinese Isinglass (Agar-Agar)

Japanese Or Chinese Isinglass (Agar-Agar). A vegetable product from Gracila'ria (Sphaerococ'cus) lichenoi'des, and other marine Algae, see page 56.