Apomorphinae Hydrochloridum, Apomorphine Hydrochloride, C17H17NO2HCl + 1/2H2O, official. - (Syn., Apomorph. Hydrochl., Apomorphine Chloride, Apomorphinae Hydrochloras; Fr. Chlorhydrate d'Apomorphine; Ger. Apomorphinum hydrochloricum, Apomorphin-hydrochlorid.) This hydrochloride of the artificial alkaloid is prepared by heating morphine or codeine (1) with pure hydrochloric acid (20) in a sealed glass tube 2-3 hours at 149° C. (300° F.), cooling liquid contents, adding excess of sodium bicarbonate to precipitate apomorphine, treating precipitate with ether or chloroform, adding 'a little hydrochloric acid, when crystals form; it is morphine deprived of one molecule of water; occurs in minute, grayish-white, glistening, monoclinic prisms, odorless,' slightly bitter taste, greenish upon exposure, soluble in water (50), hot water (17), alcohol (50), slightly in chloroform, ether; aqueous solution neutral; over sulphuric acid loses water of crystallization, regaining it on exposure. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution + sodium bicarbonate solution - white, greenish-white precipitate, green on exposure, dissolving in ether (violet), chloroform (violetblue). 2. Aqueous solution + silver nitrate T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, black by reduction to metallic silver - instantly reduced by ammonia water. 3. Incinerate .2 Gm. - ash non-weigh-able; salt dissolves in nitric acid - purple. Impurities: Decomposition products. Should be kept dark, in small, well-stoppered vials, having been rinsed with hydrochloric acid and dried; should be rejected if shaking with water (100) produces at once an emerald-green; solutions should be made freshly with a little hydrochloric or acetic acid to prevent decomposition. Dose, expectorant, gr. 1/40-1/25 (.0015-.0025 Gm.); emetic, gr. 1/16-1/8 (.004-.008 Gm.).

Diacetylmorphina, Diacetylmorphine, C17H17NO(C2H3O2)2, official. - (Syn., Diacetylmorph., Heroine, Diacetic ester of Morphine; Br. Diamorphine; Fr. Heroine; Ger. Diacetylmorphin.) This alkaloid is prepared from morphine by acetylization - heating morphine with acetyl chloride, washing product with water, then with dilute solution of sodium carbonate, purifying by crystallization from hot alcohol. It is a white, crystalline, odorless powder, soluble in water (1700), alcohol (31), chloroform (1.4), ether (100); saturated alcoholic solution alkaline, melts at 172° C. (342° F.). Tests: 1. Dissolve .01 Gm. in a few drops of nitric acid - yellow color, changing to greenish-blue. 2. Heat .1 Gm. + alcohol 1 Ml. (Cc.) + sulphuric acid 1 Ml. (Cc.) - produces ethyl acetate, recognized by odor; incinerate .5 Gm. - ash non-weighable. Impurities: Morphine, foreign alkaloids, ammonium salts, readily carbonizable organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/24-1/12(-0025-.005 Gm.).

Diacetylmorphinae Hydrochloridum, Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride, C17H17NO(C2H3O2)2.HCl + H2O, official. - (Syn., Diacetylmorph. Hydrochl., Diacetylmorphine Chloride, Heroinae Hydrochloridum; Br. Diamorphine Hydrochloride; Fr. Chlorhydrate d'heroine; Ger. Diacetylmorphin (Heroin) hydrochlorid, Salzsaures Heroin.) This hydrochloride of the (artificial) alkaloid is prepared by dissolving diacetylmorphine crystals in dilute hydrochloric acid, concentrating, setting aside to crystallize. It is a white, crystalline, odorless powder, soluble in water (2), alcohol, insoluble in chloroform, ether; aqueous solution neutral, faintly acid, melts at 230° C. (446° F.) with decomposition. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution, + silver nitrate T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/24-1/12 (.0025-.005 Gm.), 3-4 times daily; 2 p. c. solution hypodermically.

Codeina, Codeine, C17H18(CH3)NO3+H2O, official. - (Syn., Codein., Codeia, Methylmorphine; Fr, Codeine; Ger. Codeinum, Kodein, Codein.) Obtained from opium by precipitating infusion with chalk and calcium chloride, when chlorides of morphine and codeine crystallize out; dissolve these in water, add ammonia, when morphine crystallizes, evaporate filtrate for codeine; if instead of ammonia we use potassium or sodium hydroxide, codeine will be precipitated and morphine remain in solution; may obtain it also synthetically from morphine by methylation - acting upon alkaline solution of morphine with methyl iodide or chloride, or sodium methylsulphate, hence it is methylmorphine. It is in colorless, translucent, rhombic prisms, crystalline powder; odorless, slightly efflorescent in warm air, soluble in water (120), alcohol (2), warm alcohol (1.2), chloroform (.5), ether (18); aqueous solution alkaline, laevorotatory; when anhydrous melts at 155° C. (311° F.); heated with insufficient water to dissolve melts to oily drops, crystallizing on cooling. Tests: 1. With sulphuric acid containing .005 Gm. of selenious acid in each Ml. (Cc.) - green, rapidly blue, slowly grass-green. 2. Dissolve .01 Gm. in sulphuric acid 5 Ml. (Cc.) - transient pink, + a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - blue when warmed, changing to red with a drop of nitric acid; dry to constant weight - loses 6 p. c.; incinerate .5 Gm. - ash non-weighable. Impurities: Morphine, etc. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).

Codeinae Phosphas, Codeine Phosphate, C18H21NO3H3PO4 + 2H2O, official. - (Syn., Codein. Phos.; Fr. Phosphate de Codeine; Ger. Codeinum phosphoricum, Kodeinphosphate.) Obtained by dissolving codeine (10) in 25 p. c. phosphoric acid (12.5), leaving solution slightly acid, and adding alcohol sufficient to precipitate. It is in fine, white, needle-shaped crystals, crystalline powder; odorless, very efflorescent, soluble in water (2.3), hot water (.5), alcohol (325), boiling alcohol (125), chloroform (4500), ether (1875); aqueous solution acid. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution neutralizing with ammonia water, + silver nitrate T. S. - yellow precipitate, soluble in diluted nitric acid or ammonia water. Impurities: Chlorides, sulphates. Considered the best salt for hypodermic use, as it is more soluble and less irritating. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.); injection, gr. 1/3-3/4 (.02-.05 Gm.).