Codeinse Sulphas, Codeine Sulphate, (C18H21NO3)2H2SO4+ 5H2O, official. - (Syn., Codein. Sulph.; Fr. Sulfate de Codeine; Ger. Codeinum sulfuricum, Kodeinsulfat.) Obtained by dissolving codeine 100 Gm. in warm water, adding sufficient sulphuric acid (16.54 Gm.) to get neutral liquid, concentrating, allowing to crystallize. It is in long, glistening, white, needle-shaped crystals, rhombic prisms, crystalline powder; odorless, efflorescent, soluble in water (30), hot water (6.5), alcohol (1280), warm alcohol (440), insoluble in chloroform, ether; aqueous solution faintly acid. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution + barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 2. Dry to constant weight at 100° C. (212° F.) - loses 12 p. c. Impurities: Morphine, etc. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).

Narcotine, C22H23NO7. - Obtained from an aqueous solution by shaking, or from opium itself by macerating with ether or chloroform; occurs in tasteless, colorless, shining, rhombic crystals; soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, hot alkaline solutions; dissolves blood-red in sulphuric acid containing some nitric acid; heated with nitric acid gives meconin, C10H10O4, cotarnine, C12H13NO3, and opianic acid, C10H10O5; forms salts (hydrochloride, sulphate, etc.). Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-2 Gm.).

Cotarninae Hydrochloridum, Cotarnine Hydrochloride, C12H14NO3Cl, official. - (Syn., Cotarn. Hydrochl., Cotarnine Chloride, Stypticin;

Fr. Chlorhydrate de Cotarnine; Ger. Cotarninhydrochlorid.) This quaternary oxymethyl - oxymethylene - dihydro - isoquinoline chloride is an oxidation product, similar to hydrastinine, obtained by hydro-lyzing narcotine - boiling it with water for a long time, or heating it with diluted nitric acid, precipitating with potassium hydroxide solution, dissolving the resulting cotarnine in diluted hydrochloric acid, crystallizing. It is a yellow crystalline powder, odorless, bitter, deliquescent in moist air, very soluble in water, alcohol (yellow solutions); aqueous solution neutral. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution, + silver nitrate T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 2. Dissolve .2 Gm. in 10 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water, + 10 Ml. (Cc.) of N/10 iodine V. S. - brown precipitate (cotarnine periodide), which, when dried, melts at 143° G. (290° F.). 3. Heat gradually .1 Gm. - decomposes, evolving characteristic, disagreeable vapors and yielding a reddish-brown liquid, changing to hard charred mass; incinerate mass - ash non-weighable. 4. Dissolve .5 Gm. in 10 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water, add 2 Ml. (Cc.) of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (15 p. c.) - milk-white precipitate, dissolved on agitation, reprecipitated on standing. Dose, gr. 1/2-l (.03-.06 Gm.), 4-5 times daily, in coated tablet, pill, capsule; hypodermic, 30 (2 Ml. (Cc.)) of 10 p. c. solution; externally, pure or strong solution. Cotarnine Phthalate, Styptol, (C12H13NO3)2C6H4(CO2H)2 - similar to the official salt, Cotarnine Hydrochloride, yellow microcrystalline powder, soluble in water; haemostatic, sedative - uterine hemorrhage. Dose, gr. 1/2-l (.03-.06 Gm.), 4-5 times daily.

Narceine, C23H29NO9. - Long, silky needles, bitter, sparingly soluble in cold alcohol and water, insoluble in ether; with warm diluted sulphuric acid - violet and cherry-red; with nitric acid - transiently yellow; with iodine - blue; with Frohde's reagent - brown-yellow; forms salts (hydrochloride, nitrate, sulphate, etc.). Dose, gr. 1/3-3/4 (.02-.05 Gm.).

The four alkaloids, morphine, codeine, narcotine, and narceine, may be extracted from any given sample of opium by shaking the concentrated infusion with ether - taking out narcotine; adding alkali in excess to filtrate - redissolving morphine and narceine, leaving codeine deposited; allowing morphine to crystallize from filtrate, and having narceine in mother-liquor, to be obtained by evaporation.

Meconic Acid, C7H4O7. - Occurs free and in combination with the alkaloids, being obtained by adding calcium chloride to opium infusion, washing this precipitate (calcium meconate) with hot water, alcohol, and treating with hydrochloric acid, when the filtrate deposits meconic acid upon cooling. Tests: 1. With ferric chloride T. S. - blood-red color, not discharged by dilute hydrochloric acid (dif. from acetic and formic acids), or by chlorides of gold or mercury (dif. from sulpho-gyanates).

Deodorized, granulated, and powdered opiums of a higher grade may be reduced with a lower, or with an inert diluent, to the required strength; or a proportionately less quantity of the higher percentage may be used direct in making preparations; thus of 15 p. c. opium only 66j Gm. need be employed where the U. S. P. directs 100 Gm. 15 : 10 :: 100 : x, or x = 66.67.

PREPARATIONS. - 1. Extractum Opii. Extract of Opium. (Syn., Ext Opii.) Powdered Extract of Opium, Aqueous Extract of Opium, Extractum Thebaicum; Fr. Extrait (d'Opium) thebaique; Ger. Opium-extrakt.)

Manufacture: Macerate until softened 100 Gm. with hot water 300 Ml. (Cc.), rub to smooth paste, add clean white sand 100 Gm., mix thoroughly, percolate with water until exhausted, evaporate on water-bath to dryness, pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 20 p. c. of anhydrous morphine, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 19.5-20.5 p. c. of anhydrous morphine; 1 Gm. represents about 2 Gm. of opium. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/4-l (.016-.06 Gm.). 2. Opium Granulatum. Granulated Opium. (Syn., Opium Gran.; Fr. Opium Grenele; Ger. Granulirtes Opium.)

Manufacture: Dry opium, convenient quantity, at 70° C. (158° F.), reduce it to a coarse (No. 8-20) powder; contains 10-10.5 p. c. of anhydrous morphine. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-2 (.06-.13 Gm.).

Preps.: 1. Tinctura Opii. Tincture of Opium. (Syn., Tr. Opii, Laudanum, Tinctura (Meconii) Thebaica; Fr. Teinture d'Opium (de Extrait d'Opium) - thebaique; Ger. Tinctura Opii Simplex, Einfache Opiumtinktur.) Manufacture: 10 p. c. Pour boiling water 40 Ml. (Cc.) on granulated opium 10 Gm., in a tared vessel, weigh, stir occasionally for 24 hours, add water to restore loss, add alcohol 40 Ml. (Cc.), pour into a bottle, macerate 48 hours, occasionally shaking, percolate, returning first portion until clear, finish with diluted alcohol q. s. 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough diluted alcohol for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .95-1.05 - 1 Gm. of anhydrous morphine. Dose, v-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)). 2. Tinctura Opii Deodorati. Tincture of Deodorized Opium. (Syn., Tr. Opii Deod.; Fr. Teinture d'Opium sans odeur; Ger. Desodorirte Opiumtinktur.) Manufacture: 10 p. c. Pour boiling water 50 Ml. (Cc.) on granulated opium 10 Gm., stir frequently for 24 hours, percolate, returning first portion until clear, continue with water until exhausted, evaporate to 15 Ml. (Cc.), cool, transfer to bottle, add purified petroleum benzin 6.5 Ml. (Cc.), stopper, shake frequently for 10 minutes, separate and discard benzin layer, shake again with purified petroleum benzin 1 Ml. (Cc.), separate and discard benzin layer, evaporate from residue, in warm place, spontaneously and cautious heat, traces of benzin, add water 60 Ml. (Cc.), filter, add alcohol 20 Ml. (Cc.), wash filter with water q. s. 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough water for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .95-1.05 - 1 Gm. of anhydrous morphine. Dose, v-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)). 16