Opium in full doses, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.), produces dry mouth, thirst, stimulates brain by increasing blood supply, arrests digestion by reducing bile, gastric and pancreatic juice secretion; causes nausea, vomiting, sweating, depressed circulation and respiration, lower temperature, contracted pupil, retention of urine, profound sopor, or, instead, coma-vigil and delirium with delightful dreams. After-effects are nausea, depression, constipation, headache, vertigo, nasal pruritus.
Uses. - To relieve pain, except in acute inflammation of the brain; to cause sleep in insomnia of low fevers; to allay irritation, to check secretions - diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes; to support system in low fevers, etc.; also for peritonitis, cerebrospinal meningitis, cholera morbus, delirium tremens, mania spasms, melancholia, sciatica, neuralgia, cancer, renal and hepatic colic from calculi, cough without secretion; to lock bowels when required by inflammation, hemorrhages, dyspnoea, angina pectoris, cerebral anaemia; morphine hypodermically for consumption, chronic catarrh, asthma, diabetes, typhoid fever, dysenteric
Fig. 145. - Poppy capsule, showing internal septa.
tenesmus, epilepsy, hysteria, croup, bronchitis, dysmenorrhoea. Externally opium applied in poultices for gout, rheumatism, ophthalmia, odontalgia, periodontitis, inflamed gums and mucous membrane of mouth. Young children are very susceptible to its narcotic effects, to whom it should be given cautiously, women are affected much easier than men, and some individuals possess idiosyncrasy toward it, being on the one hand easily, on the other with difficulty, brought under its influence; others cannot tolerate the smallest dose, while many animals accept it ad libitum - ducks, chickens, pigeons, monkeys, etc.
Poisoning: Have mental excitement, increased heart action, slow, irregular, stertorous breathing, cold, clammy sweats, headache, deep sleep, contracted pupils, face reddened, then bluish, slow pulse and dilated pupils as the end approaches, lost reflexes; jaw falls, muscular relaxation, coma, death finally by paralyzed respiration; the more contracted the pupils, the more serious, while vomiting and free perspiration are favorable symptoms. In apoplexy pupils are unequal, in alcoholism they are normal or dilated, in chloroform widely dilated; the odor of breath and vomited matter will often aid diagnosis. Give tannic acid or vegetable astringents (strong coffee or tea), then evacuate the stomach (pump, apomorphine, zinc sulphate, ipecac, etc.), or wash it out with a warm solution of potassium permanganate (using twice the amount of salt as of morphine ingested, then atropine (strychnine), caffeine, cocaine, digitalis, brandy, spirit of nitrous ether, amyl nitrite) to maintain circulation and respiration; faradization, cold douches, ambulation, flagellation; it is eliminated by the kidneys, consequently catheterize the bladder often to prevent reabsorp-tion, and keep the patient awake.
Incompatibles: Alkalies, alkaline carbonates, lime water, tannic acid and vegetable preparations containing it, salts of lead, iron, copper, mercury, and zinc, Fowler's solution, atropine, strychnine, coffee, caffeine, tartar emetic, digitalis; with morphine: iodine, iodides, bromine, bromides, sodium borate. Synergists: Alcohol, hydrated chloral, belladonna, cocaine, ipecac. Opium-habit (Disease): To this, thousands of weak and strong-minded have fallen prey, including such eminent characters as Coleridge, Robert Hall, John Randolph, De Quincey, Wilkie Collins, etc. By some thought to be a habit, which may be cured by gradually lessening the quantity or by stopping off abruptly, substituting for a time tonics, hyoscine and stimulants - ginger, capsicum, black pepper, quassia, calumba, diluted phosphoric acid, tincture lupulin, etc. Others consider it a disease amenable to systematic systemic treatment in hospitals, etc., where mainly hygiene, tonics, strychnine, atropine, quinine, iron and gold salts are relied upon. Decoction of Sumatra climber, Combre'tum sunda'icum, is claimed to be valuable.
Opium-test: Heat the gum, which, becoming fluid, runs when tilted from dung, mineral and vegetable matters, evaporate heavy liquid to a powder; of this take 25 gr. (1.6 Gm.) + water 3iv (15 Ml. (Cc.)), triturate, if stiff or mucilaginous - starch, flour, gum, salep; add water ℥ij (60 Ml. (Cc.)), filtrate should be wine-yellow - no extract licorice; mixture should be acid - no ashes, chalk, litharge; evaporate to ℥j (30 Ml. (Cc.)), add potassium ferrocyanide or twice quantity alcohol, should get no precipitate - no heavy metal or gums; the insoluble residue should be 10-11.5 gr. (.6-.7 Gm.), or 100 parts should yield 55-60 parts of aqueous extract.
Fig. 146. - Poppy seed, magnified 12 times: a, the outside; b, longitudinal section showing embryo.
Fig. 147. - Papaver Rhoeas.