1. Sevum Bovinum, Beef Tallow

Sevum Bovinum, Beef Tallow. This is the internal fat of Bos taurus; it is similar to the preceding, except that it has a slightly different odor; melts at 40° C. (104° F.), and contains more palmitin, and no hircin.

II. Wool Fat: Sheep's wool contains much fat, usually 45 p. c. of its weight, which must be removed before the wool is suitable for fabrics. This is accomplished by macerating the wool in several waters, preferably boiling, collecting of each the supernatant fat layer, mixing them, straining through linen, exposing to sun until bleached white; sea-water may be employed, skimming off foam and kneading it with hands in the sun; it may be purified by treating with weak alkali solutions, centrifuging the resulting emulsion, thereby separating a lower aqueous layer (soap solution of impure fatty acids) and an upper creamy layer (cholesterin, fats), which upon removal and treatment with calcium chloride, separating and dehydrating the fat by fusing with unslaked lime, extracting mixture with acetone, and reclaiming same, yields a residue of pure wool fat. It is a light yellow, tenacious, unctuous mass; slight odor; insoluble in, but miseihle with water (2), sparingly soluble in alcohol, more so in hot alcohol, soluble in ether, chloroform; melts at 40° C. (104° F.); vaporizes at higher temperatures, the vapor burning with luminous, sooty flame. Tests: 1. Dissolve in chloroform (1 in 50), pour upon sulphuric acid - deep brownish-red develops at line of contact of the layers; dry to constant weight - loses .5 p. c. of weight (abs. of water). 2. Incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c, which is not alkaline to litmus (abs. of alkalies, soaps). Impurities: Alkalies (free), soaps, free fatty acids, chlorides, glycerin, water, petroleum, soluble oxidizable substances. Should be kept cool in well-closed containers impervious to fat.

Constituents. - Cholesterin, C26H43OH, isocholesterin, cerylic, car-naubic, lanolinic, and other alcohols, esters of lanopalmitic, myristic, carnaubic, oleic, and other acids, ash .3 p. c.

Preparations. - 1. Adeps Lanoe Hydrosus. Hydrous Wool Fat. (Syn., Adeps Lan. Hyd., Lanolin, Lanolinum; Fr. Lanoleine, Graisse de Laine Hydratee; Ger. Adeps Lanae cum Aqua, Wasserhaltiges Wollfett.)

Manufacture: Place in a warm mortar wool fat 70 Gm., add gradually with constant stirring, water 30 Ml. (Cc). It is a yellowish-white, nearly white, ointment-like mass; slight odor; insoluble in, but mis-cible with water (2); with ether, chloroform - turbid, neutral solutions; contains 25-30 p. c. of water. Test: 1. When heated separates into upper oily and lower aqueous layer; heated on water-bath with stirring - residue 70-75 p. c, which is transparent when melted and on cooling remains a yellowish, tenacious, unctuous mass, soluble in ether, chloroform, sparingly in alcohol, and responds to tests of wool fat. Should be kept cool in well-closed containers impervious to fat.

Preps.: 1. Unguentum Belladonna, 30 p. c. 2. Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati, 40 p. c. 3. Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Flava, 40 p. c. 4. Unguentum Stramonii, 20 p. c.

Unoff. Preps.: Ceratum Plumbi Subacetatis, 20 p. c. Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri, 40 p. c. Unguentum Resorcinolis Composi-tum, 28 p. c.

Properties and Uses. - Lenitive. It is claimed to be absorbed by the skin more quickly than most fats, hence an excellent base for mercury and other medicines to be administered by inunction. Soothing to the skin and a good base for ointments, as it does not become rancid.

Derivative Products:

1. Suprarenalum Siccum. Dried Suprarenals, official. - (Syn., Supraren. Sicc, Glandulae Suprarenales Siccae, U. S. P. 1900, Desiccated Suprarenal Glands; Fr. Glandes Surrenales dessechees; Ger. Getrocknete Nebennieren.) The suprarenal glands of animals used for food by man (sheep, ox, pig, etc.) cleaned, dried, freed from fat, and powdered, and containing .4-.6 p. c. of epinephrine (active principle).

Manufacture: After removing all external fat and connective tissue the glands are dried as rapidly as possible in a current of warm air at a moderate temperature, and when sufficiently dry are reduced to a coarse powder, and the remaining fat removed by petroleum benzin; all moisture must be removed, by desiccation if necessary, to avoid subsequent putrefaction, after which residue is powdered finely and preserved in well-stoppered bottles. It is a light yellowish-brown, amorphous powder, slight, characteristic odor; partially soluble in water; contains not more than 7 p. c. of moisture; incinerate - ash 7 p. c.; 1 part represents 6 parts of fresh glands, free from fat.

Commercial. - The suprarenal or adrenal gland (body or capsule) of the sheep (ox, pig) is a small glandular, follicular body shaped like a cocked hat, and perched as a cap on the top of each kidney. The gland is not confined to the animals above mentioned, but is present in mammals and most other vertebrates, that in man being 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, less in width, and 6 Mm. (1/4') thick; it consists of an outer yellowish cortical portion and a very dark inner medullary portion, and while ductless and of unknown function contains abundant bloodvessels, nerves, and lymphatics. They yield their active constituent to boiling water, or to a more or less saturated aqueous solution of boric acid, in which the medicinal properties may remain unimpaired for months. These solutions can readily be made 5-10 p. c, and when 1 Ml. (Cc.) represents 1 Gm. of the fresh gland we have what is recognized as Extractum Glandularum Suprarenales. Dose, gr. 3-15 (.2-1 Gm.); dried extract, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.).

Epinephrine (adrenalin, adnephrin, adrin, suprarenalin, supra-capsulin), the recognized active constituent, resides in the medulla of the gland, and when isolated is a yellowish-white, stable, alkaline, micro-crystalline powder, slightly bitter, benumbing points of contact on the tongue; turns brown when heated to 205° C. (401° F.), melts, decomposes, and swells at 207° C. (405° F.); readily soluble in most diluted acids and alkalies, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in hot water; colorless aqueous solutions easily oxidized by air, changing from pink to red and brown; forms salts (benzoate, hydrochloride, sulphate), each becoming a brown, brittle, deliquescent, amorphous mass.

Properties. - Astringent, haemostatic, cardiac stimulant, vascular constrictor, muscle tonic, local anaesthetic, poisonous. Some ascribe to the gland a function - the removal and destruction of certain poisons from the blood, or the production of an active substance necessary for the maintenance of health. Lessens heart rate, causes a weak pulse to become strong, and an intermittent one regular, stimulates feeble cardiac muscle, has no action on normal heart, and no organic disease contraindicates its use, reduces size of thyroid; epinephrine is considered about 600 times stronger than the extract, and a solution (of it or its salt) 1 to 10,000 blanches normal conjunctiva within 30-60 seconds.

Uses. - Locally to nose and throat to reduce congestion and hasten absorption of inflammatory tissue, rhinitis, hay fever, conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, ear affections, relieves deafness and tinnitus, hypertrophy of turbinated bodies (increases effect of cocaine), Addison's disease (characterized by fibro-caseous metamorphosis of suprarenal capsules, brownish-olive coloration of skin, amaemia, prostration), asthma, epistaxis, rickets, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, anaemia, enlargement of spleen and liver, local vaso-constrictor in minor surgery.

2. Thyroideum Siccum. Dried Thyroids, official. - (Syn., Thyroid. Sicc, Glandulae Thyroideae Siecae, U. S, P. 1900, Desiccated Thyroid Glands; Br. Thyroideum Siccum, Dry Thyroid; Ger. Getrocknete Schielddriisen.) The thyroid glands of animals used for food by man (sheep, ox, pig, etc.) freed from connective tissue and fat, dried and powdered, and containing .17-.23 p. c. of iodine in thyroid combination.

Manufacture: Remove external fat and connective tissue from thyroid glands taken from sheep (ox, pig) immediately after killing, cut glands across, rejecting those that are hypertrophied or contain cysts or otherwise abnormal; mince finely the healthy glands, dry at 32-38 ° C. (90-100° F.), powder dried product, remove all fat by treating with petroleum benzin, dry residue. It is a yellowish, amorphous powder, slight, characteristic odor; must be free from iodine in inorganic or any other form of combination than that peculiar to the thyroid; contains not more than 6 p. c. of moisture, 5 p. c. ash, and 1 part corresponds to 5 parts of the fresh glands.

Commercial. - The sheep's thyroid gland, located about the first two tracheal rings, is 2-lobed, joined by a narrow band (isthmus) in front of the tracheae, brownish-red, weighing 2 drachms (8 Gm.); contains thyroidin, iodoglobulin. The extract (Extractum Thyroidei) is made with glycerin (4 glands in each ounce; 30 Ml. (Cc.)), the solution heated with strong phosphoric acid, poured into lime water, precipitate dried. The solution (Liquor Thyroidei, Br.), made with glycerin, preserved with .5 p. c. aqueous solution of phenol, is pinkish, turbid, without putrescent odor; 100 minims (6 Ml. (Cc.)) represent one gland. Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).

Thyreoidectin (Capsulae Antithyroideae) is a reddish-brown powder from blood of thyreoidectomized sheep (those with thyroid gland removed), used similar to the official product.

Properties and Uses. - Influences the processes of nutrition and metabolism, which at present is not understood; in health it is a circulatory sedative or depressant, causing loss of flesh when persisted in; often produces ill-health, wrinkling and changing skin from healthy appearance to a sallow hue. When taking full doses patient should remain in bed, owing to attending depression, which can be abated somewhat by strychnine; causes not only loss of fat, but nitrogenous tissue, hence persons must partake liberally of proteid diet. Dementia, acute mania, exophthalmic goitre.